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1사형제도의 유효성에 대한 법사회학적 고찰- 미국의 사례를 중심으로 -

저자 : 윤진숙 ( Jin Sook Yun )

발행기관 : 법조협회 간행물 : 법조 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2014 페이지 : pp. 103-131 (29 pages)

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사형제도는 비록 범죄자에 대한 형벌이지만 인간의 생명을 대상으로 하기 때문에 신중하게 그 존폐여부를 결정해야 한다. 인간의 존엄성, 범죄억제력의 불인정, 오판가능성 등의 이유로 현대에는 전 세계적으로 많은 나라가 사형을 폐지하고 있다. 이 논문에서는 사형제도의 범죄억제력을 법사회학적 통계자료를 참조하여 미국의 사형선고 사례들과 연관하여 분석하였다. 미국에서 에어리히(Ehrlich), 셀린(Sellin) 등 많은 학자들의 법사회학적 연구결과는 사형이 범죄억제력이 없다고 하며, 발두스(Baldus)는 소수자, 특히 흑인에게 사형선고가 더 자주 내려진다는 차별의 문제를 통계를 통해 보여주었다. 1972년 퍼만(Furman) 사건에서 미국 연방대법원은 셀린의 연구결과를 인용하면서 사형이 범죄억제력이 없다는 이유로 사형이 미국수정헌법 제8조와 제14조에 위반하는 ‘잔인하고 비정상적인’ 처벌이라고 판결하였다. 비록 맥클레스키(McCleskey) 사건에서 흑인에 대해 차별적인 사형선고가 많이 내려진다는 발두스의 연구결과를 받아들이지는 않지만, 파월 대법관이 자서전에서 밝힌 바와 같이 사회학적 연구와 상관없이 사형은 폐지되어야 할 것이다. 케네디(Kennedy) 사건에서는 아동에 대한 강간과 사형으로 인한 범죄억제력이 연관성이 없다는 연구결과를 다수의견이 받아들였는데, 아동에 대한 강간이라는 사안의 특수성은 분명히 고려되어야 한다. 많은 법사회학적 연구결과에서 사형과 범죄억제력의 연관성에 대해 부정적으로 밝혀지고 있다. 이러한 연구결과를 참조함과 동시에 사형제도 자체의 심각성에 대해서는 분명히 고려되어야 하며 재론의 여지없이 사형제도를 계속 존속시킬 수는 없을 것이다.


Although the death penalty is punishment for a criminal, since a human life is at stake, the decision of whether to impose it must be made carefully. Today, many countries throughout the world have abolished the death penalty for various reasons such as the sanctity of human life, unproven crime deterrence and the possibility of misjudgment. This paper analyzes the crime deterrence of the death penalty based on death sentence cases in the United States and with reference to sociology of law statistical data. Sociology of law studies done by scholars such as Ehrlich and Sellin in the United States have concluded that the death penalty does not deter crime, while Baldus has shown through statistics the problem of discrimination where the death penalty is imposed more frequently on minorities, especially blacks. In the 1972 Furman case, the US Supreme Court, citing Sellin’s study results, ruled that the death penalty is a “cruel and unusual” punishment violating the 8th Amendment and the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution, based on the reason that the death penalty is not a crime deterrent. Although the study results of Baldus reporting that discriminatory death sentences are imposed on blacks at a greater frequency is not accepted in the McCleskey case, the death penalty should be abolished regardless of sociological studies, as stated by Justice Powell in his autobiography. In the Kennedy case, the majority opinion accepted the study result that there is no connection between child rape and crime deterrence due to the death penalty. Here the distinct characteristic of the issue of child rape should be definitely considered. The connection between the death penalty and crime deterrence is being negatively proven in much of sociology of law research. Such research results should be consulted, and at the same time the seriousness of the death penalty itself must be considered. The death penalty cannot be sustained continuously without a review.

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2사형 제도에 대한 윤리학적 숙고

저자 : 홍석영 ( Hong Suk-young )

발행기관 : 한국윤리교육학회 간행물 : 윤리교육연구 46권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 131-153 (23 pages)

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우리 나라는 사형 제도를 법률로는 유지하고 있으나, 실제 집행은 하고 않은 상태이다. 고등학교 선택 과목인 『생활과 윤리』교과에서는 ‘사형 제도의 윤리적 문제’를 학습 주제로 설정하고 있다. 현재 사용되고 있는 교과서들은 주로 사형 제도에 대한 찬반 논거를 중심으로 기술되어 있다. 그런데 사형 제도 찬반 논거는 응보주의, 사회계약론, 공리주의 등의 윤리학적 배경을 가지고 있다. 따라서 사형 제도 대한 찬반 논거의 윤리학적 배경을 이해한다면, 사형 제도의 윤리성을 성찰하는데 큰 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다. 이에 본고에서는 사형 제도에 관한 서양의 주요 윤리학자들 견해와 논거를 원문을 제시하면서 살펴보고자 한다.


Whether the capital punishment is or is not ethical? This question is the topic of this paper. In Korea, the capital punishment is maintained jurally. But no one has been put to death since 1997. 12. 30. The high school subject, ‘Life and Ethics’ handles the ethical problem of capital punishment. This paper reviews the argument of western moral philosophers. I. Kant and G. W. F. Hegel supported the capital punishment in retribution viewpoint. J. J. Rousseau also supported the death penalty in social contract standpoint. On the other hand, C. Beccaria opposed the death penalty in social contract standpoint. J. Bentham also argued the death penalty as the most egregious example of a punishment in utilitarian viewpoint. In conclusion, we are to reflect on the capital punishment from a human dignity standpoint in the moral subject.

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3전근대 한국사회와 사형제도 -한말과 일제강점기를 중심으로-

저자 : 이덕인 ( Deok In Lee )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 123-152 (30 pages)

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This study starts with a question over limited political implication being monopolized as strengthening means of feudal monarchy system or colonial rule that is an aspect of punitive features of death penalty system. Therefore, through an analysis of death penalty system during the era of Gapo reform, Korean Empire and Japanese colonial rule that are corresponding to premodern times of our country, a phenomenon of limited political implication was observed in a critical perspective. Weight of political implication that exceeds required objective to be always pursued by the punishment has been imposed on death penalty among punishments. Political implication of death penalty may be briefly expressed as retributive legal conviction, expectation of threatening effect and complete isolation of the offender. However, aside from supporting whatever perspective, its start should have been combined with criminal case itself at that time but death penalty system in premodern times of our society had put its weight on limited political context as a means of strengthening feudal royal authority or colonial rule rather than on situation of public order or criminal severity at that time. Therefore, essence of death penalty system is required to be critically and realistically introspected in terms of the fact that death penalty of This study starts with a question over limited political implication being monopolized as strengthening means of feudal monarchy system or colonial rule that is an aspect of punitive features of death penalty system. Therefore, through an analysis of death penalty system during the era of Gapo reform, Korean Empire and Japanese colonial rule that are corresponding to premodern times of our country, a phenomenon of limited political implication was observed in a critical perspective. Weight of political implication that exceeds required objective to be always pursued by the punishment has been imposed on death penalty among punishments. Political implication of death penalty may be briefly expressed as retributive legal conviction, expectation of threatening effect and complete isolation of the offender. However, aside from supporting whatever perspective, its start should have been combined with criminal case itself at that time but death penalty system in premodern times of our society had put its weight on limited political context as a means of strengthening feudal royal authority or colonial rule rather than on situation of public order or criminal severity at that time. Therefore, essence of death penalty system is required to be critically and realistically introspected in terms of the fact that death penalty of This study starts with a question over limited political implication being monopolized as strengthening means of feudal monarchy system or colonial rule that is an aspect of punitive features of death penalty system. Therefore, through an analysis of death penalty system during the era of Gapo reform, Korean Empire and Japanese colonial rule that are corresponding to premodern times of our country, a phenomenon of limited political implication was observed in a critical perspective. Weight of political implication that exceeds required objective to be always pursued by the punishment has been imposed on death penalty among punishments. Political implication of death penalty may be briefly expressed as retributive legal conviction, expectation of threatening effect and complete isolation of the offender. However, aside from supporting whatever perspective, its start should have been combined with criminal case itself at that time but death penalty system in premodern times of our society had put its weight on limited political context as a means of strengthening feudal royal authority or colonial rule rather than on situation of public order or criminal severity at that time. Therefore, essence of death penalty system is required to be critically and realistically introspected in terms of the fact that death penalty of premodern times was not a means of recovering justice but just activating authoritative power.

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5동북아시아 사형제도의 국제 동향과 미래 예측

저자 : 이덕인 ( Deok In Lee )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 24권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 273-297 (25 pages)

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As entering modern and contemporary times, northeast countries chose ways different from one another in the process that they established their own national identities and organized ideologies bolstering the identities. However, their epistemological bases of crimes and punishments were as ever connected by asian values. Therefore, the solidarity of asian values on death penalty may boil down eventually to the problem of how to dissolve the set of fixed values. Although this awareness accompanies as many difficulties in leading changes as the depth of history, it is inevitable to cope with the problem by building solidarity power on the basis of co-prosperity of mankind because death penalty ultimately are not a problem of a regional situation applying to a certain country. Specifically, Korea has halted an execution of death penalty for a long time, and furthermore, in order to be commensurate with its expected role in the global society as the country from which UN secretary general is from and as a newly elected non-permanent member of the security council, it should boost its status as a country completely abolishing the death penalty in northeast asia by hurriedly signing the 2nd optional protocol to the international covenant and taking a procedure to ratify it.

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6사형제도에 대한 국제협약과 국내 현황에 대한 연구

저자 : 오경식 ( Kyung Sik Oh )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 275-295 (21 pages)

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The death penalty is the ultimate denial of human rights. It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner Developments on the use of the death penalty in 2011 confirmed the global trend towards abolition. The number of countries that were known to have carried out death sentences decreased compared to the previous year, and overall, progress was recorded in all regions of the world. I want to introduce the situation of korean death penalty and the movement of the abolishment of death penalty. There have been many treaties and agreements in the international society for abolition of death penalties. Preparation of municipal laws to accommodate these treaties and agreements is important. The nature of death penalty has thus been analyzed, and many movements to lead the public opinion towards its abolition have taken place. Death penalty is closely connected to how a human life is viewed, Based on the assumption that death penalty is a cruel and counter-intellectual punishment, it is believed that its role is to reduce violent or heavy crimes, but it must be noted that it has little effect in reducing crimes. Death penalty does not reduce crime and abolishing it will not increase crime. But it remains supported as the concept of punishing cruel and malicious criminals. Restitutive justice holds only a historical value in scholarly debates and theories, but it continues to heavily influence the public opinion even today. The logics and organizations for its abolition will eventually lead to the abolition of death penalty, and it is expected that Korea will become an abolitionist nation.

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7대한민국에서의 사형제도

저자 : 전지연 ( Ji Yun Jun )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 6권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 43-57 (15 pages)

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8로마시대의 사형제도에 관한 연구

저자 : 조현욱 ( Hyun Wook Cho )

발행기관 : 부산외국어대학교 비교법연구소 간행물 : 비교법학 23권 0호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 133-161 (29 pages)

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Italia is the center state accomplished the foundation of Rome civilization to the Mediterranean. They say that Rome enlightenment is that of law. In this article, I try to show that how was the death penalty system in the Rome era. The death penalty as the ultimate sanction is the oldest penalty, but it has been used widely throughout history. In Korea after 31th December 2007, the capital punishment has not execute, so we grouped as a abolitionist in practice by Amnesty International. The debate of execution of a death penalty is current issue nowadays. The first death penalty law in the Rome era was Law of the Twelve Tablets(lex duodecim tabularum) in the Fifth Century B.C.`s Death sentences in the Rome era were carried out by such means as crucifixion, beheading, hanging, burial alive, drowning, beating to death, and burning alive. The death penalty in the Rome era was a cruel, serious punishment. The lex Julia maiestatis has been conjecturally assigned continued to be the basis of the Roman law of death penalty until the latest period of the empire. Foreruner for the theory of capital punishment abolition was Italian Cesare Beccaria, who asserted abolition of capital punishment. To study a modern death penalty system we need to examine the historical process of that. This study provide some information in the korean criminal Law, specially in death penalty system and its abolition. The suspending of execution and choice of indefinite period for life are the desirable way for abolition of capital punishment.

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9사형수신드롬에 관한 질적 연구

저자 : 유병철 ( Byung Chul Yoo )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 163-188 (26 pages)

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This article relates to criminological implications how physical circumstances and psychological experiences harmfully affect death-row prisoners. They should have been executed right after their final verdict, however, they have endured their life for long period of time without execution. Since they can be put to death legally and practically at any time, they have lived under the extreme stresses and experienced deathlike fears for the long time. With a stigmatized red name-tag outrightly different from others, their everyday life on a death row has been lonely and disconnected causing the fear of death. None has discussed the so-called death-row syndrome and the circumstances and experiences of death-row prisoners in Korea. As an active prison warden, the author interviewed in-depth thirteen convicts on death-row and analysed qualitatively their narratives about their physical circumstances and psychological experiences. Recently they could get along with other prisoners in prison cells and participated in working at prison factories. For all the changed conditions of death-row prisoners, the article discloses that their conditions and experiences relate to the so-called death-row syndrome. It is proved by delayed execution, poor conditions, and deteriorated psychological sufferings. Therefore, death-row syndrome should be considered on the issues of the abolition and execution of death penalty.

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10사형폐지를 위한 입법론의 방향

저자 : 이덕인 ( Lee Deok-in )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 19권 4호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 1-24 (24 pages)

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1998년 이후로 지난 20년 동안 사형은 명목상으로 존재하고 그 집행이 정지되어 왔으나 국민정서는 여전히 사형이 형벌로서 그 기능을 담당해야 할 것을 요청하고 있다. 최근의 대법원 판결 역시 이러한 추세를 반영하듯 사형의 형벌적 정당성과 그에 근거한 사형선고의 정당성을 인정하는 입장을 취하고 있으며, 이와 같은 결과는 결국 사형제도의 폐지문제가 사법적 판단이나 헌법해석을 통하여 도달할 수 없다는 사실을 시사한다. 이에 따라 사형의 완전한 폐지에 이르기 위해서는 결국 입법정책으로 이 문제가 처리되어야 할 사안이라는 사실을 더욱 분명히 부각시키지만 그간의 의원입법은 한계에 봉착하여 별다른 성과를 거둘 수 없었다. 따라서 사형폐지를 위한 입법정책은 의원입법이 아니라 정부입법의 형식으로 전환되어야 하며, 현 정부에서는 시급한 몇 가지 현안부터 우선적으로 처리하고 관련 입법을 정부안으로 상정하여 완전한 사형폐지에 도달할 수 있도록 해야 할 것이다.


Death penalty should be abolished not for the condemned criminal who committed malicious crime, but to reinforce our own sense of rights and promote value of life respect. Thus, when the starting point of reinforcing life respect will and human rights sensibility in our society forms social consensus, the public opinion that retribution is the best and optimal value pursued by punishment will back down from the social public sentiment. Public opinion and political decision is connected to problem of who will take the burden on death penalty abolition, so shifting or dodging the responsibility will regress the level of human rights in our society. When considering what is the optimal measure to take in such circumstance, the one and only conclusion is abolition based on legislation. Thus, the 20th National Assembly is preparing to table a death penalty abolition bill(plan), but legislation sponsored by legislators have failed numerous times, and when reflecting the behavior of legislators, it seems to be waiting for the change in public opinion. However, as the legislation enforcement is available through government, the current administration which clarified its stance on abolition must deal with prior matters of reducing and organizing offences punishable by death based on statutory penalty reorganization. At the same time, the legislation policy of death penalty abolition must be changed into procedure of government introducing the legislation and the congress reviewing the legislation.

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