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1사형제도의 유효성에 대한 법사회학적 고찰- 미국의 사례를 중심으로 -

저자 : 윤진숙 ( Jin Sook Yun )

발행기관 : 법조협회 간행물 : 법조 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2014 페이지 : pp. 103-131 (29 pages)

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사형제도는 비록 범죄자에 대한 형벌이지만 인간의 생명을 대상으로 하기 때문에 신중하게 그 존폐여부를 결정해야 한다. 인간의 존엄성, 범죄억제력의 불인정, 오판가능성 등의 이유로 현대에는 전 세계적으로 많은 나라가 사형을 폐지하고 있다. 이 논문에서는 사형제도의 범죄억제력을 법사회학적 통계자료를 참조하여 미국의 사형선고 사례들과 연관하여 분석하였다. 미국에서 에어리히(Ehrlich), 셀린(Sellin) 등 많은 학자들의 법사회학적 연구결과는 사형이 범죄억제력이 없다고 하며, 발두스(Baldus)는 소수자, 특히 흑인에게 사형선고가 더 자주 내려진다는 차별의 문제를 통계를 통해 보여주었다. 1972년 퍼만(Furman) 사건에서 미국 연방대법원은 셀린의 연구결과를 인용하면서 사형이 범죄억제력이 없다는 이유로 사형이 미국수정헌법 제8조와 제14조에 위반하는 ‘잔인하고 비정상적인’ 처벌이라고 판결하였다. 비록 맥클레스키(McCleskey) 사건에서 흑인에 대해 차별적인 사형선고가 많이 내려진다는 발두스의 연구결과를 받아들이지는 않지만, 파월 대법관이 자서전에서 밝힌 바와 같이 사회학적 연구와 상관없이 사형은 폐지되어야 할 것이다. 케네디(Kennedy) 사건에서는 아동에 대한 강간과 사형으로 인한 범죄억제력이 연관성이 없다는 연구결과를 다수의견이 받아들였는데, 아동에 대한 강간이라는 사안의 특수성은 분명히 고려되어야 한다. 많은 법사회학적 연구결과에서 사형과 범죄억제력의 연관성에 대해 부정적으로 밝혀지고 있다. 이러한 연구결과를 참조함과 동시에 사형제도 자체의 심각성에 대해서는 분명히 고려되어야 하며 재론의 여지없이 사형제도를 계속 존속시킬 수는 없을 것이다.


Although the death penalty is punishment for a criminal, since a human life is at stake, the decision of whether to impose it must be made carefully. Today, many countries throughout the world have abolished the death penalty for various reasons such as the sanctity of human life, unproven crime deterrence and the possibility of misjudgment. This paper analyzes the crime deterrence of the death penalty based on death sentence cases in the United States and with reference to sociology of law statistical data. Sociology of law studies done by scholars such as Ehrlich and Sellin in the United States have concluded that the death penalty does not deter crime, while Baldus has shown through statistics the problem of discrimination where the death penalty is imposed more frequently on minorities, especially blacks. In the 1972 Furman case, the US Supreme Court, citing Sellin’s study results, ruled that the death penalty is a “cruel and unusual” punishment violating the 8th Amendment and the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution, based on the reason that the death penalty is not a crime deterrent. Although the study results of Baldus reporting that discriminatory death sentences are imposed on blacks at a greater frequency is not accepted in the McCleskey case, the death penalty should be abolished regardless of sociological studies, as stated by Justice Powell in his autobiography. In the Kennedy case, the majority opinion accepted the study result that there is no connection between child rape and crime deterrence due to the death penalty. Here the distinct characteristic of the issue of child rape should be definitely considered. The connection between the death penalty and crime deterrence is being negatively proven in much of sociology of law research. Such research results should be consulted, and at the same time the seriousness of the death penalty itself must be considered. The death penalty cannot be sustained continuously without a review.

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2사형제도 폐지 논의에 대한 고찰

저자 : 황병돈 ( Byeong-don Hwang )

발행기관 : 홍익대학교 법학연구소 간행물 : 홍익법학 8권 3호 발행 연도 : 2007 페이지 : pp. 185-223 (39 pages)

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우리나라는 올해 12월 30일 앰네스티가 정한 사실상의 사형폐지국이 될 예정이다. 현재 세계 133개국에서 법률상 또는 사실상 사형이 폐지되어 있다. 인권 및 인간의 존엄성에 대한 고려에서 비롯된 것이다. 사형은 임박한 생명침해에 대한 자기방어가 아니다. 보다 완화된 방법으로 취급되어야 할 범죄인에 대한 살인행위와 다를 바 없다. 아직 많은 나라에서 사형이 사회 또는 정치적 문제를 해결하기 위한 유용한 수단으로 믿어져 범죄인들을 사형에 처하고 있고, 국민들조차도 사회 방위의 효과가 전혀 없는 잔인함 그 자체라는 것을 전혀 받아들이지 않고 있다. 사형제도 폐지는 많은 지지층을 확보하고 있으나 아직 충분치 않다. 사형제도는 인간의 기본적 권리를 침해하는 것이고, 국제인권선언에도 반하는 것이다. 우리나라는 이러한 사형제도를 법적으로 완전 폐지해야 할 것이고, 법무부가 이에 앞장서야 할 것이다.


Our country will be considered the death penalty abolitionist in practice at 12/30/2007. These day in 133 countries, the death penalty have been abolished in the law or the practice. That begun by considering of human rights and dignity. The death penalty is not an act of self-defence against an immediate threat to life. It is the premeditated killing of a prisoner who could be dealt with equally well by less harsh means. Yet too many governments still believe that they can solve urgent social or political problems by executing a few or even hundreds of their prisoners. Too many citizens in too many countries are still unaware that the death penalty offers society not further protection but further brutalization. Abolition is gaining ground, but not fast enough. The death penalty violates fundamental rights. Internationally agreed laws and standards stipulate that the death penalty can only be used after a fair judicial process. The Universal Declaration recognizes each person`s right to life and categorically states further that "No one will be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment". The death penalty violates these rights, too. We should abolish the death penalty perfectly in law after gaining ground nationally. The Ministry of Justice should carry the mission immediately.

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3사형제도에 대한 국제협약과 국내 현황에 대한 연구

저자 : 오경식 ( Kyung Sik Oh )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 275-295 (21 pages)

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The death penalty is the ultimate denial of human rights. It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner Developments on the use of the death penalty in 2011 confirmed the global trend towards abolition. The number of countries that were known to have carried out death sentences decreased compared to the previous year, and overall, progress was recorded in all regions of the world. I want to introduce the situation of korean death penalty and the movement of the abolishment of death penalty. There have been many treaties and agreements in the international society for abolition of death penalties. Preparation of municipal laws to accommodate these treaties and agreements is important. The nature of death penalty has thus been analyzed, and many movements to lead the public opinion towards its abolition have taken place. Death penalty is closely connected to how a human life is viewed, Based on the assumption that death penalty is a cruel and counter-intellectual punishment, it is believed that its role is to reduce violent or heavy crimes, but it must be noted that it has little effect in reducing crimes. Death penalty does not reduce crime and abolishing it will not increase crime. But it remains supported as the concept of punishing cruel and malicious criminals. Restitutive justice holds only a historical value in scholarly debates and theories, but it continues to heavily influence the public opinion even today. The logics and organizations for its abolition will eventually lead to the abolition of death penalty, and it is expected that Korea will become an abolitionist nation.

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4공법 : 사형제도의 합리적 대안에 관한 연구

저자 : 박찬걸 ( Chan Keol Park )

발행기관 : 한양대학교 법학연구소 간행물 : 법학논총 29권 1호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 5-27 (23 pages)

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There had been attempts to abolish the death penalty until the 17th National Assembly. On the other hand, the three Special Laws on Death Penalty Abolishment submitted to the 18th National Assembly are different from previous ones because the core of argument is not whether to keep the death penalty system or not. The key arguments of the new 3 laws are the concept and the scope of life sentence, which will replace the death penalty if the death penalty would be abolished. It is judged that this is a desirable development reflecting the current situation because the death penalty has already become dead words. It is expected that there will be more vigorous and practical discussion on the alternatives of death penalty in the future; instead of the theoretical discussion on whether to keep the death penalty or not. In order to respond to recent trend, this study advances one more step from the existing examination on the validity of concrete basis claimed by the party who support the keeping of death penalty system and the party who support the abolishment of death penalty system. This study further tries to find the answer to the question asking what would be the most reasonable alternative to death penalty, if the death penalty system would be abolished. For this, the policy directions during the transition period of death penalty alternative; such as the decrease of crimes which would be sentenced of death penalty, the effect realization equivalent to the death penalty sentence suspension and the introduction of ``absolute life sentence`` will be discussed and the issues will be drawn. As last, the discussion will close by suggesting the content of relative life sentence and the rational operation plan for the related requirement as the ultimate policy direction of the alternatives to the death penalty system.

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5연구논문 : 동북아시아 사형제도의 국제 동향과 미래 예측

저자 : 이덕인 ( Deok In Lee )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 24권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 273-297 (25 pages)

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As entering modern and contemporary times, northeast countries chose ways different from one another in the process that they established their own national identities and organized ideologies bolstering the identities. However, their epistemological bases of crimes and punishments were as ever connected by asian values. Therefore, the solidarity of asian values on death penalty may boil down eventually to the problem of how to dissolve the set of fixed values. Although this awareness accompanies as many difficulties in leading changes as the depth of history, it is inevitable to cope with the problem by building solidarity power on the basis of co-prosperity of mankind because death penalty ultimately are not a problem of a regional situation applying to a certain country. Specifically, Korea has halted an execution of death penalty for a long time, and furthermore, in order to be commensurate with its expected role in the global society as the country from which UN secretary general is from and as a newly elected non-permanent member of the security council, it should boost its status as a country completely abolishing the death penalty in northeast asia by hurriedly signing the 2nd optional protocol to the international covenant and taking a procedure to ratify it.

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6비교법논문 : 미국의 사형제도 개괄

저자 : 박용철 ( Yong Chul Park )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 335-355 (21 pages)

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The United States of America is a country where the death penalty not only be provided in law as a form of ultimate punishment but be actively utilized. The yearly numbers of death row inmates executed have maintained relatively high since the number hits record high in the year of 1999 with the number, 98. Since the year of 1976, when the Country decided to resume executions, more than twelve hundred death row inmates have been executed. The supporters of the capital punishment take the horrific case of the United States of America as the main example why the system needs to stay status quo, meaning that the Ultimate Punishment should continue to exist as it is because it is being used in the Country of the most advanced democratic system in the world. Does that mean that the example of the United States can be applied to Korea? When it comes to the Constitution in that matter, the US Constitution takes totally different view from most of other countries on earth. That is, as long as it is "due" procedurally as well as substantively, taking someone`s life in the name of justice can be justified given the 8th Amendment and the 14th Amendment. The debates in the U. S. on the death penalty seems that it overlooks the essence of the Punishment. Ending someone`s life can never be humane no matter what method is used to minimize the pain coming with the Punishment. Also there is a problem of possible errors in the death penalty. Some scholars in the U. S. predict that capital punishment will be abolished sooner or later because the problems with it are too significant and too overt for the practice to survive. Because no one is able to dispute that the capital punishment leaves no room for any error, it requires the most completely reliable procedures. After all, the U. S. can never be a good example to maintain the death penalty. One of the best reasons is what is applicable under the U. S. law cannot be the precedent to follow give the vast difference in the letter of law and the other is that the death penalty itself is flawed in many ways. Therefore any attempt to use the U. S. as a supporting example to praise for the death penalty should never be made.

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7연구논문 : 사형제도에 대한 연구 -일본의 현상과 문제점-

저자 : 이덕인 ( Deok In Lee )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 22권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 293-318 (26 pages)

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Today, more than 60 years after the Supreme Court of Japan first ruled that the death penalty itself and the execution means were constitutional, we need to think whether Japan is the society in the future when the precedent was planning to abolish the death penalty, or not. In this precedent, the Supreme Court said that life was high and noble and one person`s life was heavier than the earth. Also, as it decided that the death penalty was not brutal judging from the circumstances of the day of the court`s decision, it clarified that the death penalty must be seen as ``an brutal punishment`` in the case that the execution means etc were brutal from humanitarian point of view judging from the time and circumstances. And, it said that a legislation for brutal punishments was against the mind of Article 36 of the Japanese Constitution. By the way, there is the ``brutality`` of the crime by the defendant, in the standards for permitting the death penalty. Namely, the brutality of a criminal and national punishments that are planning to punish him are doubly interlinked in the death penalty. But, because making a judgement about the brutality of the crime by the defendant is extremely subjective and lacks in objectivity and the standard gap among each case is too big, it can be said as the examination factor of an offense which is empty of justice. Also, the brutality of national punishments is not absolute and value-free but a concept which is changed by the time and circumstances. So, I think that making a judgement about indetermination by indetermination is inconsequent and can`t be the basis of the existence of the death penalty. Just like our society, the execution of the death penalty in Japan has the principle of secrete practice. Although people who don`t directly witness the moment, ending one`s days on the gallow, may argue that it is not brutal, condemned criminal on the gallow doesn`t die by being throttled but he ends his life in the unimaginably horrible pain with the broken cervical spine. Today, it is a common sense in civilized societies that no execution means of the death penalty could be humanitarian and reduce pain. Basically, half century after the suggestion of the constitutional decision in Japan, today`s situations at the time and circumstances widen the subjects and the ranges of the human right and the dignity of human. Even if a condemned criminal, we cannot deny he is a humans except for the fact that he is forced to offset his responsibility about a crime by his death. So, Japan should recollect their proud Heian period that daringly deleted the death penalty in the punishment list, than conceal it at the back of today`s distorted fear of a crime and use it as an instrument of ruling for national management.

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9일반논문 : 사형의 장기미집행과형의 시효에 관한 규정의 부조화-사형은 곧 징역 30년?-

저자 : 김영철 ( Young Cheol Kim ) , 조현옥 ( Hyun Wook Cho )

발행기관 : 건국대학교 법학연구소 간행물 : 일감법학 29권 0호 발행 연도 : 2014 페이지 : pp. 121-152 (32 pages)

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본 논문에서는 사형의 장기미집행과 형의 시효와의 관계를 논증하여 형의 시효제도 개선방안을 제시함으로써 사형의 장기미집행과 형의 시효 진행 여부에 대한 논점을 정리해보았다. 사법부인 법원에 의해 사형이 선고되었음에도 형 집행기관인 행정부가 자의적으로 형을 미집행하는 것은 권력분립주의 위반으로서 위헌이고 따라서 사형을 집행하지 아니하고 법정시한을 넘겨 임의적으로 징역형을 계속 집행하는 사실상의 사형폐지조치에는 적법성을 부여할 수 없다. 사형확정자에 대한 교정시설 내 수용이 사형집행을 위한 필수적 전치절차로서가 아니라 사형집행대신 수용하여 실질적으로 징역형을 집행하는 의사에 의한 것이라면, 법원이선고한 “사형”을 형 집행기관인 행정부가 임의적으로 “자유형”으로 변경하고 사형집행 대신에 자유형을 집행하는 것에 다름이 아니다. 이러한 목적의 수용은 이미 정당성을 상실하여 사형의 시효 진행을 막을 수는 없다. 그러므로 이때에는 사형의 시효가 진행되어야 한다. 법원에 의한 사형선고가 확정되었고 헌법재판소나 대법원이 사형제도를 합헌으로 확인하고 있어 사형집행에 아무런 장애사유가 없음에도 불구하고 사형을 집행하지 않는 것은, 형법 제79조 제1항의 “기타 집행할 수 없는 기간”으로 볼 수 없고 따라서 시효정지 사유가 될 수 없다. 형법 제80조의 체포는 사형집행에 선행되는 필수적 전치절차로서 신병확보를 위한 불가피한 조치이므로 그 자체가 형 집행은 아니며 사형집행과는 다른 별개의 조치이다. 따라서 사형집행 의사는 없이 단순히 체포만 하고자 하는 경우 또는 징역형만을 집행하고자 하는 경우에는 사형의 시효중단사유가 될 수 없다. 사형이 정당한 사유 없이 집행되지 않고 30년이 경과한 경우에는 설사 사형확정자가 교정시설 내에 수용 중이라고 하더라도 시효가 완성되었다고 보아야 한다. 현행법상 사형제도가 엄연히 존치하고 있고, 사형의 시효인 30년이 다 되어가는 현재 시점에서는 시효가 완성되기 전에 이에 대한 명확한 입법정책이 시급히 수립되어야 한다. 본 논문에서의 문제제기로 시효연장 내지 시효규정 자체의 삭제여부에 대한 검토는 물론 현재도 논란이 되고 있는 사형범죄의 시효 배제규정의 신설문제도 본격적으로 다루어지는 계기가 되기를 기대해 본다.


This Article goes on the Mismatch between long-term non execution of Death penaltyand prescription of punishment. In Criminal Act Article 77 regulate “A person who has been sentenced guilty shall berelieved of the execution thereof by reason of the completion of the period of prescription”. And period of prescription is completed when judgment of guilt has not been executed forThirty years period, in the event of death penalty after the judgment has become final. The right to prosecute is subject to time limit of 30 years if the offence is punishableby death penalty. There is controversy about the age of the type that has completed 30 years elapsed ifthe death penalty is not enforced. The legal scholar has two positions, namely positive and negative theories. According to our opinion prescription of punishment is completed when the lapse of 30years without executions. Because there is also no reason to exclude the completion of prescription of punishment. We have not heretofore explicit provision for this. So we need a legislative amendmentfor exclusion or deletion of prescription of punishment. It is necessary to continue research for this.

KCI등재

10연구논문 : 사형수신드롬에 관한 질적 연구

저자 : 유병철 ( Byung Chul Yoo )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 163-188 (26 pages)

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This article relates to criminological implications how physical circumstances and psychological experiences harmfully affect death-row prisoners. They should have been executed right after their final verdict, however, they have endured their life for long period of time without execution. Since they can be put to death legally and practically at any time, they have lived under the extreme stresses and experienced deathlike fears for the long time. With a stigmatized red name-tag outrightly different from others, their everyday life on a death row has been lonely and disconnected causing the fear of death. None has discussed the so-called death-row syndrome and the circumstances and experiences of death-row prisoners in Korea. As an active prison warden, the author interviewed in-depth thirteen convicts on death-row and analysed qualitatively their narratives about their physical circumstances and psychological experiences. Recently they could get along with other prisoners in prison cells and participated in working at prison factories. For all the changed conditions of death-row prisoners, the article discloses that their conditions and experiences relate to the so-called death-row syndrome. It is proved by delayed execution, poor conditions, and deteriorated psychological sufferings. Therefore, death-row syndrome should be considered on the issues of the abolition and execution of death penalty.

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