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THE KOREAN SMALL BUSINESS REVIEW

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수록정보
34권3호(2012) |수록논문 수 : 5
간행물 제목
34권3호(2012년) 수록논문
권호별 수록 논문
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KCI등재

1연체율의 분석을 통한 효율적인 소상공인 금융지원에 대한 고찰

저자 : 이유태 ( You Tay Lee ) , 이성백 ( Seong Baek Yi )

발행기관 : 한국중소기업학회 간행물 : 중소기업연구 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 1-19 (19 pages)

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본 연구는 소상공인에 대한 금융지원인 정부의 정책자금과 일반 은행 대출의 실질연체율의 비교?분석을 통하여 국가 전체의 균형발전의 관점에서 소상공인의 경쟁력 향상을 위한 효율적인 금융지원을 어떻게 하여야 하는 가를 조사하였다. 분석결과에 나타난 주요 특징을 요약하면 첫째, 2008년을 제외하고는 정책자금의 연체율이 일반 은행 대출의 연체율보다 통계적으로 의미 있게 낮았으며 둘째, 정책자금과 일반 은행 대출 두 지원방법 다 지방은행의 실질연체율이 시중은행의 실질연체율보다 의미 있게 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 전국에서 유일하게 별도로 자영업지원센터를 운영하는 지방 P은행의 경우 다른 지방은행과 비교해서도 낮았지만, 특히 시중은행과는 더욱 현저히 차이가 나서 그 차이가 일반 은행 대출의 경우 0.822%에 이르는 것으로 조사되었다. 소상공인을 금융 지원하는 정부의 정책자금과 일반 은행 대출의 실질연체율을 비교·분석한 결과를 요약 하면 소상공인을 지원함에 있어 컨설팅과 교육을 연결하여 대출을 실시하고 자율적이고 시장 원리에 맞는 지역 금융시스템을 구축해나갈 필요가 있다는 것이다. 일반 은행은 지난 10여 년간 일선에서 소상공인을 지원하면서 많은 경험과 인프라를 축적한 소상공인 지원센터 시스템 및 상담사의 상담 능력을 벤치마킹하여 대출과 연계하고 현재 정책자금을 실시하는 중요 주체인 소상공인 진흥원 및 소상공인지원센터는 보다 효율적인 금융지원이 될 수 있도록 더욱 컨설팅 및 교육 인프라를 확충하는 게 중요하다는 것이 본 연구 결과가 시사하는 바이다.


This study analyzed the way for efficient financial support to improve the competitiveness of small enterprise through the comparison of the loan default rates between the policy fund and banks loan for small enterprise in light of national balanced economy. Important findings are as follows. 1) The default rate of the policy fund is lower than that of the banks loan for small enterprise except the year of 2008 and the difference among the default rates fetches to 0.243%. The difference in the default rates outstands in 2011. It may be due to the fact that the policy fund changes to the priority system which subsidizes the people first who took education and consulting courses beginning 2010. The financial support associated with education and consulting is expected to perform better than that without education and consulting in terms of the loan default rate. The fact that the interest rate of the policy fund is lower than that of banks loan could result in the lower default rate for the policy fund. Yet low interest rate turns out to be not related with low default rate in this analysis. Thus, it can be concluded that the financial support associated with education and consulting is superior to the other case. 2) The loan default rate of local banks is lower than that of nationwide banks across the policy fund and the bank loans. The difference in the loan default rate by local banks and nationwide banks amounts to 0.384% for the policy fund and 0.605% for banks loan. The result indicates that the loan to small enterprise is regionally oriented since small enterprise is based on the region. 3) The loan default rate of the local ``P Bank`` which operates the consulting center on its own for small enterprise is significantly lower than that of nationwide banks. The difference in the default rates amounted to 0.822%. Besides there was no notable difference across the policy fund and banks loan for ``P Bank.`` The loan default rate of the local ``P bank`` is lower than that of the other local banks, too. Therefore, the lower default rate of the policy fund is attributable to consulting and education system, not to lower interest rate set by the policy. It is concluded that the financial support for small enterprise works better with the appropriate consulting and education and local financial system needs to be constructed in accordance with this findings. It has been reported that the policy fund increases the sales volume of small enterprise and the fund has positive effect on the performance of management for small enterprise. But the policy fund can`t accomodate all of 2.7 million of small enterprise in Korea. Banks loan take most of loan to small enterprise. Therefore, The financial support under frequent start and closure of small enterprises these days needs to be associated with the appropriate consulting and education for the balanced economy as a whole. The outstanding banks loan to small enterprise now reached over 100 trillion won. If the default rate of bank loan ever rise, it gives much more financial distress to the banks. As a result, the national economy will surely suffer. The banks need to benchmark the expertise of the Small Enterprise Development System which has been accumulated over the last 20 years by serving numerous small enterprises. In addition, the Small Enterprise Development System which oversees the policy fund also needs to intensify the consulting and educational infrastructure for the efficient financial support to small enterprise in Korea. This paper finds that the superiority of the policy fund to the banks loan is attributable not to the lower interest rate of the policy fund, but to the role of the counsellor at the Small Enterprise Development System which provides the consulting and education and shows the way to the efficient financial system to strengthen the competitiveness of small enterprise in the future. When small enterprise borrows take loan from banks, the criteria for loan decision by banks should be based on its pure creditability. For regional financial system in accordance with spontaneous economic principle to work properly, the banks need to develop credit rating model associated with stylized and standard abilities of the counsellors at the Small Enterprise Development System. It is crucial since small enterprise, especially at the beginning stage in its business, does not have enough sound financial data for applying for banks loan. As a matter of fact, many of start-ups are excluded even from the policy fund since the lending process of the policy fund also puts a lot of emphasis on quantitative figure such sales volume, net income, etc. Therefore the policy fund tends to be not properly served according to its original purpose of aiding start-ups of small enterprises. The policy fund rather subsidizes mature small enterprises with good financial status. Considering that there is a great need for money at the beginning stage of small enterprise, the policy fund and banks loan need to be allocated more to start-ups rather than to growing enterprise with better statistics in terms of sales volume and managerial environment. The appropriate credit rating model needs to be developed by incorporating the evaluation and recommendation by the counsellors at the Small Enterprise Development System. The banks loan does not differentiate between small enterprise and an individual or self-employed although the government puts much energy in supporting small enterprise including making the law for small enterprise explicitly. Therefore, banks loan system needs to be coordinated in accordance with government policy for the competitiveness of small enterprise in light of national balanced economy, which in turn makes the aid more effective and efficient. This study yet has limitations in that the differences in default rates between the banks loan and the policy fund are compared in univariate way for each category of industries, interest rates, gender, age, the business history, etc. To analyze the determinants of the default rates of loan in more comprehensive way, multivariate regression analysis needs to be employed by designating the default rate as a dependent variable and industries, interest rates, gender, age, ways of supporting aids, the business history, etc. as independent variables. The data including financial statements for small enterprise in Korea is hardly available for the quantitative analysis such as regression analysis. Small sample of 7 banks analyzed, missing data, outliers, etc. are also restrictions for this analysis. It is advised that in future study more number of banks and more data after 2011 need to be analyzed to reach more meaningful conclusion for efficient way of financial support to small enterprise in terms of national economy.

KCI등재

2자영업 비중에 대한 시계열 분석; 실업률과의 관계를 중심으로

저자 : 김우영 ( Woo Yung Kim ) , 박동규 ( Dong Kyu Park )

발행기관 : 한국중소기업학회 간행물 : 중소기업연구 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 21-41 (21 pages)

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본 연구는 1975~2010년간 우리나라 자영업 비중의 변화를 분석하고 특히 자영업 비중과 실업률 및 주요 변수와의 장기 및 단기관계를 추정한다. 기존 연구와 달리 본 연구는 다양한 자영업 비중의 지표를 구성하고, 공적분과 오차항 수정모형을 추정하며, 실업률과 자영업 비중 사이의 비대칭성을 분석에 포함시킨다. 연구결과, 자영업 비중과 실업률 사이에는 장기 및 단기 관계가 존재하지만 단기에 있어서 이러한 관계는 비대칭적인 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 장기와 단기 모두에 있어서 순수 자영업자 비중과 실업률 사이에는 양의 관계가, 고용주 비중과 실업률 사이에는 음의 관계가 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 순수 자영업자인 경우는 밀어내기 가설이, 고용주의 경우에는 끌어들이기 가설이 지지되는 것으로 해석될 수 있다. 이 외에도 자영업 비중과 소득세율 사이에는 양의 관계를 보이기 때문에 세율이 높을수록 상대적으로 세금회피가 쉬운 자영업을 선택할 가능성이 있다는 점, 고용주와 순수 자영업자는 학력 측면에서 이질적이라는 점, 실업률이 자영업 비중에 미치는 영향은 인구구조변화와 경기 변동에 따라 달라질 수 있다는 점 등이 발견되었다. 하지만 Parker(1996) 등의 외국 연구에서 자영업 비중에 중요한 영향을 미치는 것으로 밝혀진 상대적 소득격차, 실질 이자율, 노사분규 등은 우리나라에는 그 영향력이 미미한 것으로 나타났다.


This study examines the changes in the self-employment rate in Korea for the period 1975~2010. In particular, the long-run and short-run relationships are estimated between self-employment rate and unemployment rate. Differentiating from previous studies, this study includes various measures of self-employment rates when estimating cointegration and error-correction models and includes asymmetric relationships between unemployment and self-employment in the analysis. Our results indicate that there exist the long-run as well as short-run relationships between self-employment rate and unemployment rate. Also, unemployment is found to have a positive effect on unincorporated self-employment while it is found to have a negative effect on incorporated self-employment. This supports a push hypothesis for unincorporated self-employment and a pull hypothesis for incorporated self-employment. In addition, this study finds no significant changes in the self- employment rate after the 1998 financial crisis, but finds a positive relationship between the self-employment rate and marginal tax rates. However, unlike the findings by Parker(1996) and others, relative income differences, real interest rates and strikes are not found to be important factors in Korea.

KCI등재

3강소기업 R&D 인력 교육훈련의 핵심성공요인

저자 : 이찬 ( Chan Lee ) , 박윤희 ( Yoon Hee Park ) , 여수경 ( Soo Kyoung Yeo ) , 이재은 ( Jae Eun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국중소기업학회 간행물 : 중소기업연구 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 43-66 (24 pages)

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최근 강소기업에 대한 관심이 집중되면서 관련된 연구가 활발하게 전개되고 있다. 그러나 강소기업으로 성장하는 데 필요한 핵심 원동력이라고 할 수 있는 R&D 인력 육성에 대한 실증적 연구는 부족한 실정이다. 이 연구는 강소기업의 기술 경쟁력을 확보하는 데 필수적인 요소라고 할 수 있는 R&D 인력 육성의 핵심 성공요인을 우리나라의 성공적인 강소기업의 R&D 교육훈련 사례를 통해 규명하기 위한 목적으로 수행되었다. 이러한 목적을 달성하기 위하여 먼저 CIPP 모형을 분석의 틀로 삼고 선행연구 분석을 통해 각각 상황, 투입, 과정, 산출 별로 가설적 성공요인을 도출하였다. 이를 실증적으로 검증하기 위하여 국내 4개 기관에서 선정된 236개의 강소기업을 모집단으로 하여 그 중 연구개발비, 연구원 수 등의 기준으로 최종 50개 기업을 선정 후 인터뷰를 수락한 11개 기업에 대해 핵심성공요인을 도출하기 위한 심층 인터뷰를 진행하였다. 인터뷰는 11개 기업의 R&D 교육담당자 11명, R&D 부서의 연구책임자 4명을 대상으로 진행되었으며, 이를 통하여 R&D 인력 교육훈련과 관련된 9개의 명제를 도출하였다. 9개의 명제 중 R&D 교육훈련 성과에 영향을 미친 요인으로는 CEO 지원, 지속적인 학습문화, 학습인센티브 제도, 사내강사 활용, 무형식학습, 교육 후 사후관리였다. 이러한 연구결과를 토대로 우리나라 중소기업의 R&D 교육훈련 연구와 이를 지원하기 위한 정책관련 시사점을 제시하였다.


A small giant business called Hidden Champion produces values through continued research and development for new markets. In industry, they also gain technical advantages which are hard to be mimicked by other competitive in Korea so that they provide a lot of implications for domestic small and medium business. Since the concept of small giant business was emerged in industry, it has actively been developed to be studied in Korea, but it has been mainly focused on the limited area such as ``finding new market``, ``marketing strategy,`` and ``success factors.`` For this reason, the empirical research for the development of R&D workforce, a key for a small giant business, is insufficient. This study was conducted to identify the key success factors of the R&D workforce development which are essential to get technical competitiveness for small giant businesses through successful R&D training and development of small giant businesses in Korea. This research was conducted based on the following procedures : 1) successful small giant businesses were select according to the outstanding performance of technical development among domestic small and medium businesses; 2) in-depth analysis was conducted about training and development systems of the selected small giant businesses; and 3) key success factors of R&D workforce development were drawn. The research employed a CIPP model as an analysis framework and drew hypothetical success factors of each context, inputs, process, and outputs through a review of literature. First of all, we conducted literature review and drew effective variables of training and development of small and medium-sized businesses that were identified as internal and external environment, task of trainees, internal characteristics of trainees and training programs factors. In this study, we empirically verified the effective variables that were mainly focused on the external environment of company and training programs factors except the internal characteristics of trainees, which were less relevant to the factors of company. The data were collected through a sample of 236 small giant business selected among domestic 4 institutes. We selected 85 companies that had a higher R&D budget per sales rather than those with an industrial average, because we supposed that those companies with bigger investment in R&D would put more budgets in training and development of R&D workforce. We selected top 50 companies for a number of researchers who were registered in the Korea Industrial Technology Association (KOITA) because we supposed that the best practices of development and training of companies would be gathered more likely if the companies had enough R&D workforce. Among the selected 50 companies, we introduced ourselves to the company managers and asked for an interview the employees of the companies through phone calls and e-mails, and conducted the in-depth interviews for 11 companies which allowed us to find training and development of R&D workforce. The interviews were conducted on 11 trainers and 4 research directors of R&D department of 11 companies. According to this research, we drew 9 propositions in terms of training and development of R&D workforce. The significant factors of R&D training and development performance among 9 propositions were support of CEO, continuous learning culture, learning incentive system, usage of in-house trainers in company, informal learning, and following up service of learning. Based on the research result, several policy implications were suggested to support R&D training and development of small and medium companies in Korea. The suggestions to improve the performance of R&D training and development of small and medium-sized companies are as follows: First, in terms of learning method, informal learning that uses internal resources of organizations such as company academy, seminar, meeting, and knowledge sharing is effective for improving the performance of training and development. Regarding training and development system, learning incentive system and follow-up service of learning are effective for improving the performance of training and development. Moreover, the support of CEO and continuous learning culture will be helpful to improve performance of training and development in the organizational culture. Second, the investment of training and development, the planning of training and development, and the evaluation of training and development are not included in the hypothetical success factors. This implies that they are not critical success factors to conduct successful training and development, but essential factors to make training and development successful. Third, R&D organizational features and R&D cycle will affect the strength of informal learning and they will be considered when empirical R&D research is conducted. Furthermore, this research provides implications of policy for establishing small and medium companies. First of all, in order to maximize the uses of human resources in small and medium businesses, it is necessary to support the system for developing in-house trainers. In addition, the learning incentive system that can have a positive effect on R&D training and development should be supported at the corporate level policy. The results of this research provide directions for future research. First, in this research, the success factors of R&D training and development of small giant companies were drawn by the responses of interviewees. Therefore, future research may identify a causal relationship between R&D training and development and the performance of companies. Second, this research findings were based on the result of the survey to 238 small giant companies so that the result could be hard to apply for all small giant businesses. In this sense, an interesting avenue for future research is to conduct surveys to every small giant business to have he results to be generalized. Third, the in-depth interview was conducted for HRD directors in small giant companies in this research. Therefore, in order to maximize the effect of the result of interview, future research may carry out more interviews of participants who attended successful R&D training program, and further study can identify key success factors through SCM (Success Case Method).

KCI등재

4국내 중소기업의 웹사이트를 통한 언론관계 활동; 국내 100대 기업과 미국 중소기업과의 비교를 중심으로

저자 : 이현선 ( Hyun Seon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국중소기업학회 간행물 : 중소기업연구 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 67-83 (17 pages)

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본 연구는 현재 국내 중소기업들이 자사의 웹사이트를 홍보차원에서 어떻게 활용하고 있는가를 살펴보았다. 특히, 본 연구는 다양한 홍보 활동 중 웹사이트를 통한 언론관계 활동을 중점적으로 분석했다. 이를 구체적으로 살펴보기 위해 국내 100대 기업과 미국 중소기업과의 비교분석을 실시했는데 분석 결과, 국내 중소기업은 비교 기업들보다 언론관계를 위한 수단으로 자사의 웹사이트를 적극적으로 활용하지 않고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 국내의 중소기업들이 커뮤니케이션의 효율성 극대화를 위해 웹사이트를 좀 더 전략적으로 활용할 필요가 있음을 시사한다.


The small and medium enterprises(SMEs) as well as large corporations have been active on the use internet as PR communication tool. In fact, many SMEs have and operate their own web sites for communicating with their stakeholder. This study is to examine the Korean SMEs` web sites in terms of PR communication, especially in the aspects of media relations. Many companies have a strong interest on mass-media relations, because they believe that media-relations are very effective communication tools. So, they are needed to consider actively media-relations in their on-line PR activities. That means companies` web sites can be also a efficient and effective channels for developing and enhancing relationship with mass media or journalists. This study used four categories; basic media relations tools, useful information, interactive communications tools, and ease of use for journalists. This study conducted a content analysis of 100 Korean SMEs, Korean top 100 companies, and US SMEs` web sites. The web sites of companies were randomly assigned to two coders who visited the sites from March 15 to April 2, 2012. This study analyzed the current status of press room, press kit, press release data, company history, organization chart, event informations, contact information, financial informations, site map, search service, and so on. The results of this study show that the Korean SMEs` media relations activities throughout their web sites are passive. Of course, the companies` web sites are not operated and managed for only media relations, they will be able to expect a large effect, if they would use them, which are already owned, for media relations channels. Overall, the Korean SMEs are providing a variety of information about them on their web sites, but they don`t use these channels in a PR sense. Particularly, the results of this study indicate that the Korean SMEs need to consider their web sites for strategic media relations. This study suggests that having and operating the web site is not important, but seeking ways to manage it efficiently is more important. Actually it is likely to be costly to plan and manage the web sites. Therefore, SMEs in the limits of a fairly tight budget for communications, should consider and seek a way for the efficient and cost-effective operation of their web sites. If SMEs could offer various information for the many different types of stakeholder, they could save a lot of expense for communication. So, this study suggests the importance that SMEs attribute to web-based media tools to achieve organizational goals.

KCI등재

5효과적인 가치공유제 도입을 위한 프레임워크에 대한 연구

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong Jin Kim ) , 송재기 ( Jae Ki Song )

발행기관 : 한국중소기업학회 간행물 : 중소기업연구 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 85-102 (18 pages)

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글로벌 경쟁이 격화되면서 대기업은 더 이상 혼자의 힘만으로 장기적인 경쟁 우위를 유지할 수 없게 되었다. 급변하는 기업환경에서 대?중소기업 간 공급 사슬 전체의 경쟁력을 높이기 위해서는 대기업의 경쟁력을 높이는 것 뿐 만 아니라 부품?서비스를 제공하는 중소기업의 경쟁력 제고가 필수불가결한 조건이 되었다. 이에 따라 기업 간의 협력 및 그 성공요인에 대한 연구는 다양한 분야에서 이루어지고 있다. 반면에, 상생협력을 위한 핵심 조건인 가치의 공유를 성공적으로 도입하고 운영하기 위한 방법에 대한 연구는 상대적으로 부족하다. 본 연구는 대?중?소기업 간 가치공유에 대하여 보다 효과적인 접근이 이루어질 수 있도록 대기업과 중소기업 간의 협력과 이러한 협력을 극대화 할 수 있는 효과적인 가치공유제 도임과 운영을 위한 프레임워크를 제시하였다. 이를 통하여 가치공유제 도입 기업이 협력관계를 통하여 추구하고자 하는 효과성과 효율성의 정도에 따라 도입 가능한 4가지 가치공유의 형태를 제시하였다. 또한 각각의 가치공유 형태에 대한 사례를 들어 구체적으로 설명하였다. 나아가 기업생태계의 경쟁력 강화를 위한 전략적 접근방안으로서의 활용방안을 제시하고 있다. 본 연구에서 제안하는 프레임워크는 가치공유의 형태를 결정하는 기준을 제시하고 가치공유방식의 전략적 활용 및 관련 정책적 수단들의 마련의 바탕으로 활용될 수 있을 것이다.


As the global business environment becomes competitive, major companies alone cannot keep the long-term competitive advantage. In the ever changing business environment, it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of major companies as well as that of SMEs that provide parts and services to major companies to enhance the competitiveness of the entire supply chain across big and small firms. Accordingly, studies on the collaboration among companies and its success factors have been done in various areas. However, there is little research on the way of adopting and operating value sharing systems which are the key condition for successful symbiotic collaboration. In the current study, we propose a theoretical framework for adopting and running the value sharing systems in an effective manner, which leads to the effective collaboration between large and small corporations. We in turn propose four different types of value sharing based on two dimensions of effectiveness and efficiency which can be obtained through the collaboration between large and small companies. We also provide examples for each type of the value sharing systems in terms of the explanation of the types. In addition, We suggest the way of using the framework as a strategic approach to the enhancement of business ecosystems. The proposed framework is expected to lay a cornerstone of determining the type of value sharing and its strategic utilization and devising policy tools.

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