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23권1호(2002) |수록논문 수 : 9
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1이슬람 원리주의와 테러리즘

저자 : 장병옥(Byung Ock Chang)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 1-21 (21 pages)

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One of the most discussed and most important topics in Islam is the relation between jihad and terrorism. Immediately after the terrorist attacks on the United States, deemed by far the most devastating incident inflicted on humankind, the Bush administration pointed radical Islamist groups, namely, al Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden and its supporters Afghan Taliban regime, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, Hezbollah, Palestinian Liberation Organization, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and Iraqi president Saddam Hussein as perpetrators of the attacks. Subsequently, president Bush has made quick moves to wage an antiterrorism campaign dubbed Enduring Freedom. Since September 11th, as the nations press, too, has made exclusive coverage of the attack, we have become more familiar with many relevant terms, one of which is Islamic Fundamentalism. Radical Islamic Fundamentalism is inherently militant in its nature and is posing a threat to the new world order that places emphasis on democratic values, particularly after the establishment of Afghan Taliban. Not only that, six Islamic Republics in Central Asia founded after the collapse of the Soviet Union are also likely to impact the new world order, in one way or another. Under these circumstances, its imperative that we put Islamic Fundamentalist in perspective. We need to look at what led them to declare Jihad and become militant terrorists from the standpoint of both Muslim and non-Muslim. To do so, political, socioeconomic, historical, psychological, theological implications must be taken into account to reflect the current situation. To keep Russias southward expansionism at check in 19th century, Great Britain had mobilized and funded Afghanistans Mujahidin. The United States, too, supported the Mujahidins fight against Soviet Unions invasion of Afghanistan. It went as far to approve of an Islamic Jihad to win the war and taught guerilla tactics that accompanied terrorism. Its such an irony that the jihad together with terrorist acts, once consented by the United States, is now pointing to U.S. allies in the Arab region and the center of the Western world, namely the United States as their victims. How the future events unfold, particularly the future course of the Islamic Fundamentalist, Jihad and terrorism greatly hinges on the U.S. administrations Middle East policy. That president Bush stayed away from his initial response and said that this is a war not against the Islam world but the terrorists is a commendable. The U.S. should not let this tragic incident develop into a clash of civilization. It must not force others to accept the Western values as universal values but rather respect and acknowledge values and cultures of non-Western world. As following George W. Bush, Prime Minister Tony Blairs recent announcement of helping the Palestinian Arabs establish an independent nation also signals some positive mood in the air. I personally have one more suggestion that the U.S. divert the part of huge dollar earned by exporting military weapons in the Middle East region to promoting peoples living standards in those regions, especially the poor ones. This will put an end to the war against terrorism and thus bring everlasting peace around the world.

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2대 테러리즘 정책수행과 인권 : 이스라엘 사례연구

저자 : 최영철(Young Chol Choe)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 23-48 (26 pages)

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This study reviews the norm formation and development process of control systems for the regulation of interrogations of suspected terrorists by the Israeli General Security Service (GSS). Examining the decisions of the Israeli Courts, discussions of the Knesset (Israeli parliament), Audit Reports of the Israeli State Comptroller, reports of the domestic and international human rights Non-Governmental Organizations, and various press reports regarding such interrogations, this study explores the factors and actors that have contributed to the formation and development of the norms and control systems for the regulation of GSS` interrogations of suspected terrorists. The time span of the research is from 1984 to 2001. For about 40 years, GSS had used illegal means, including torture in their interrogations of suspected terrorists. In the Mid-1980s, however, the information on the operation of GSS against terrorist attack and illegal practices of the interrogators were leaked to the Israeli press and the GSS attempted to cover up the information but whistle-blowers of the GSS informed it to the Attorney General and it was dealt in the Supreme Court. It was human rights organizations which imposed upon the Israeli Supreme Court to issue the court ruling of September 7, 1999 which outlawed the GSS` illegal methods of interrogation. The major actors, who have contributed to the norm formation and development of control systems against the GSS` illegal infringements of the interrogee`s basic human rights, were the whistle-blowers of the GSS, Attorney General, the State Comptroller, the Israeli Supreme Court, the Israeli and foreign press, and Israeli, Palestinian and international human rights NGOs such as the Public Committee Against Torture in Israel, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, the Center for the Defense of the Individual, and the UN Committee Against Torture.

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3사우디 이슬람원리주의 운동의 시대별 변천과정과 이념적 특성 - `70 년대 와 `90 년대를 중심으로 -

저자 : 황병하(Byung Ha Hwang)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 49-77 (29 pages)

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This study is designed to research on the changing process of Saudi Islamic Fundamentalism and its characteristics focusing on the opposition movements in 1970s and 1990s. In chapter Ⅰ , the purpose of this study is presented with some explanation of the historical process of Saudi opposition movements. In chapter Ⅱ, the Wahhabi ideology and its creed are described. In the late 1920s, there are two Islamic functions. One is a state religion, and the other is a Islam of opposition. The latter was developed to the Ikwan movement. In the beginning of the Saudi regime, Wahhabi Islam was a moral code, a unifying factor of society. The formation of Saudi Kingdom transformed the Islamic role in Saudi society. The Ikwan, however, were defeated as a main opposition power and religious dominating power of Saudi society. In chapter Ⅲ, the new Ikwan movement and its opposition activities are presented. The Ikwan want another government focusing on the Islamic goals and exercising of the holy Sharia law. In 1950s and 1960s, the intellectual, some of young princes, educated groups and students organized an opposition movement. They advocated a constitutional monarchy, based on the liberal and socialist principles. But this movement was not violent. In chapter Ⅳ the backgrounds of Saudi Islamic Fundamentalism in 1970s are discussed to understand the political, economical, religious relationships between the opposition movement and Saudi regime. There happened two great opposition movements in 1979. Juhayman al-Utaybi and his groups violently took over the Grand Mosque in Mecca. They opposed Saudi regime`s sudden affluence and western lifestyle. He said the duty of good Muslim was to fight the West and reject the western-style transformation of Saudi society. Shi`i minority of Saudi society in Gulf region also challenged Saudi regime. They were affected by 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. They advocated no-discrimination in jobs and welfare conditions. In chapter Ⅴ, the backgrounds of 1990s` Islamic opposition movement are presented. In this period, the Islamic opposition movement focused on the royal family`s corruption, incompetence, socioeconomic neglect and poor record of human rights. In chapter Ⅳ, the reaction of Saudi regime against opposition movement and the future of Saudi Islamic Fundamentalism are discussed. The Saudi regime responded to the opposition movements positively and negatively. They sometimes imposed physical limitations, and sometimes tendered material incentives. In conclusion, some reasons for the opposition movement are presented. They are economic recession, tribal diversity, western lifestyle, weak leadership and rising of new elite group. The uniqueness of Saudi Islamic Fundamentalism is in its ideological Wahhabi origin.

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4터키 여성의 정체성

저자 : 김대성(Dae Sung Kim)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 79-110 (32 pages)

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Realizing one`s identity is tantamount to recognize the real nature of one`s being. One`s identity is objectively manifested through social interaction in the relationship with others, or one`s social status and role. Identity is not fixed but transforming itself according to social changes like a living organism. The identity of Turkish women cannot help having been changing from the period of the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic as the social environments such as the legal system, social recognition about women`s role, educational attainment, and veiling customs have significantly shifted between both periods. The present essay examines the identity of Turkish women in the social context which includes overall shift of women`s status, civil rights assigned to them by the Turkish Republic, educational attainment, and controversies on veiling tradition. The traditional relationship between male and female in the pre-Islamic Turkey entered on a new phase in the setting of the Islamic law, Shariah, of the Ottoman Empire. Since the middle of the 15th century, centralization of power and Islamic dominance in politics and religion had prevailed through the empire. The Quranic idea of androcentrism resulted in a discriminatory or disparaging view of women. The identity of women in the Ottoman empire was understood within the frame of Shariah which was inevitably gravitated toward men; the social activities of women were gravely limited and the education was offered largely to men. The Republic period witnessed a turning point in the identity of Turkish women from the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish Republic adopted a secular system of laws to be applied to the judgement of family affairs which had been regulated by the Islamic laws and traditions in the Ottoman Empire. Westernized civil law was introduced in 1926 and substituted for the Islamic law which had restricted the status of women in the Ottoman Empire. The introduction of the new civil law abolished polygamy and divorce without agreement, and thus accomplished startling improvement in the status of Turkish women. Especially, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, in the later period of his reign, established female suffrage which then guaranteed the equality of the sexes by law in terms of political participation. The alternative ruling parties of the Republic differ in their attitudes toward the equality of the sexes in providing educational opportunity. The reign of Ataturk only saw a higher illiteracy of women than that of men, though he made efforts to provide women with educational opportunities as equivalent to those of men as possible, which testified that long-held view of conservatism about women was hard to be eliminated. The number of female students have been insignificantly increased in the rural elementary schools. The assumption of reigns by conservative parties, when compared to that by progressive parties, entailed a lower rate of increase not only in the number of male students but also in that of female ones. Progressive western cities provide elementary education irrespective of sex while conservative southeastern ones doesn`t. The issue of head towel has developed as a symbol of ideology and sense of values that indicate the political and religious propensity beyond a women`s independent and personal fondness such as the simple selection of dress. In other words, the cloths of Turkish women can be regarded as an external representation indicating the selection between the tradition and modernism that mean the Islamization and secularization, respectively. It is obvious that a republic period has drastically strengthened the women`s rights and status in the family and social relationship by the law compared to the Ottoman period. It is also desirable that the legal system enhances the women`s status, but it is more important that women own their internal will and capability to understand and utilize the established legal system. Therefore, it is concluded that n

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5근대화 이후 이집트 여성의 정체성 - 여성의 지위와 역할 , 여성문제를 통한 고찰 -

저자 : 조희선(Hee Sun Cho)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 111-137 (27 pages)

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The aim of this paper is to review Egyptian women`s identity through their status, role, and issues according to changes of Egyptian society since modernization. Egypt has been considered as one of the leading Arab countries which had debated positively on women`s issues. Changes of Egyptian women`s role and status have influenced on women`s role and status not only in Arab world but also in Islamic world. Egyptian women`s identity has been changed according to political, economic, and social changes of Egyptian society. First, this paper will discuss on Egyptian women`s status and role before modernization, especially focused on Mamluk period in which their women played an important role as custodians of property. Secondly, it will study on changes of Egyptian women`s status and role since the western invasion and introduction of the western civilization, which exploited women`s issues as a pretext to justify the hegemony of the colonial authorities. Thirdly, the relation between Egyptian nationalism and feminist movements will be discussed in the view that they had cooperated for recovering their sovereignty from the colonial power since the 1919 National Revolution. Fourthly, it will study on secular feminist movements which had been led by high-middle class women. They played a leading role to help children and women of the poor class, and also worked for political rights. Fifthly, it will discuss on establishment of Egyptian women`s identity through the Islamic movement. In spite of many negative influences of the Islamic movement on women`s issues, it gave Egyptian women a new horizon to establish their identity. After studying on Egyptian women`s status and role according to historical development, it will discuss on Egyptian women`s issues which has been hotly debated in Egyptian society, i.e. women`s education and work, Hijab and women`s isolation, and Personal Status Law. It is true that Egyptian women have played important roles in the society since their social, economical, and political status and role has been expanded. However, low class or peasant women are still living under very inferior condition, while Educated or high class women have enjoyed different benefits which the Egyptian feminists and government have achieved. Therefore, Egyptian feminists who are mostly belonging to middle-high class have been criticized by that they did not react actively on anti feministic Personal Status Law which determines their legal status. Issue of the Personal Status Law is still an obstacle which prevents modern Egyptian women from establishing their status and identity.

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6히자즈와 타밈 방언의 비교 연구

저자 : 윤용수(Yong Su Youn)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 139-160 (22 pages)

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A linguistics study of the Quran have been the one of the most important subjects in Arabic linguistics since A.D. 7th century when the Quran was edited. And what is the identity of classical Arabic have been also the important subject in Arabic linguistics. In the 7th century, the Quraysh tribe (Hijaz) in the western Arabia peninsula and the Tam m tribe in the eastern area had the political, military, religional predominant position over the other tribes. In socio linguistic respect. it give us the much suggestions that the two varieties (Hijaz and Tamim dialect) gave much influenced to the creation and development of classical Arabic. It was proved in many Prophet`s traditions(hadil) that the Quraysh dialect was by far the purest of all Arabic dialects and that the Prophet was the most eloquent (?afsa) among the Arabs, not only by virtue of being a Qurayshite, but because God has choosen for him the choicest, purest, clearest and most correct Arabic. And the poets from Tam m had been considered the arbitrator of the correct Arabic among the Arabs. Therefore, I try to analysis and compare the Hijaz and Tamim dialect to find there linguistic characters and influence to the classical Arabic. The purpose of this study is not only to compare the two dialects, but also to find the relation classical Arabic and Hijaz and Tamim dialect.

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7( - DIr ) 의 형태 , 통사적 특성에 대하여

저자 : 연규석(Kyoo Seok Yeon)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 161-180 (20 pages)

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This paper focuses on explaining the morphosyntactic properties of a Turkish morpheme (^-DIr), criticizing the weakness in the descriptive grammars that had been written by former Turcologists. They describe the morpheme as a copula or a complex category that stands for both third person singular and suffix verb. But their descriptions have some mistakes: First, there is no complex category in the Turkish language because of being a typical affixing one. Second, it is well known that ⅰ- is the copula in the Turkish language. Actually, I showed that the morpheme would be neither a complex category nor a copula here in this paper. As an alternative proposal, I made an inquiry about the possibilities that the morpheme was a sentence marker or modal clitic. The latter seems to be more persuasive than the former. Because the former has some counterexamples such as "Uzak yoldan geldin, yorulmu~sun-dur. / Uazak yoldan geldin, yorulmussun." and "Dikkatliyim-dir. / Dikkatliyim. ", etc. On the contrary, the latter has no examples of like character for the time being. Moreover, it is well known that the morpheme has modal features such as `possibility` and `presumption` and `certainty`. In conclusion, it is assumed that the morpheme (^-DIr) is one of modal clitics despite the fact that its functions and meanings will be checked further into.

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8나왈 알 - 사으다위의 페미니즘 고찰 : 두 편의 작품 분석을 중심으로

저자 : 김능우(Neung Woo Kim)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 181-209 (29 pages)

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This thesis aims at studying the feminist features of Nawal al-Sa`dawi who is a prominent Egyptian writer, feminist, through analyzing her two works r「emoirs of a Woman Doctor」 (1958) and 「Woman at Point Zero」 (1975). In rMemoirsj al-Sa`dawi exposes the irrationality of male authority society that despises and oppresses women. In addition, by portraying a woman with a tough spirit, armed with expert knowledge, al-Sa`dawi urges women to realize the fact, and to strive for recovery of their rights equal to men`s. But 「Memoirs」 , which is her first novel is not characterized by the author`s will to break down the male authority. Rather, it shows the author`s idea in the early stage of feminism, which originates in love for humanity. Meanwhile, 「Point Zero」 , a work of seventies displays the development of al-Sa`dawi`s radical feminism. In 「Point Zero」 the heroine as a prostitute is a model of Arab women who are oppressed and exploited by the male authority, driven to despair. The heroine`s anger and disgust toward men extend to society which keeps the patriarchal values. She tries to obtain freedom and to converse the power relations by controlling her body. The act of killing one of men constitutes the climax of her struggle to gain control over herself. Al-Sa`dawi`s these writings constitute a discourse of rebellion against patriarchy. Her criticism of women being regarded as sexual objects rather than human beings pervades these writings. Al-Sa`dawi has focuses on women`s bodies, on sexuality, and their struggle to free themselves from the constraints of society.

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9아모스 오즈의 서술구조 - 《 여자를 안다는 것 》 을 중심으로

저자 : 최창모(Chang Mo Choi)

발행기관 : 한국중동학회 간행물 : 한국중동학회논총 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2002 페이지 : pp. 211-234 (24 pages)

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A prolific and precocious writer, Amos Oz(born 1939) had established himself as an important figure in Israeli fiction before he was thirty. He is the leading writer in what the critic Gershon Shaked has called the New Wave in Israeli fiction. Having grown up in the Jewish state, Oz tends to see statehood amid armed conflict not as an unexpected moral trauma, in the generation of 1948, but as a troubling existential fact. Though his novels and stories typically use explicit and sometimes explosive political material, he seems less interested in politics as such than in how politics can provide a mirror for the subterranean life of the psyche. As an Israeli citizen, he has participated in various efforts toward reconciliation with the Arabs; as a writer, he has probed the hidden - or suppressed - emotional netherworld of Israeli national existence. With greater artistic sureness, his novel, (1989) evokes the disturbed emotional life of Yoel Ravid as a 23 year veteran of the Israeli secret service. Oz characterized "the real context" of contemporary Israeli literature as one that included "the soul - searching, the self - hatred, mingled with compassion, the wrath, the ironies, and a certain sense of `unrealness` about the people, the time, the place, and the language." Yoel has retired from the agency wars after his wife`s sudden death in a freak accident while he was in Helsinki on a mission. In his newly rented house in a Tel Aviv suburb, Yoel surrounds himself with women: his mother, Lisa; his mother-in-law, Avigail; and his 16-year-old daughter, Netta. "A free man in almost every sense of the word"(the irony is patent), Yoel contrives strategies for getting through the day. "To Know a Woman": the title similarly resists giving up its secret. "Everything held a secret," thinks Yoel at one point, then almost immediately considers the possibility of failing to decipher that secret - of being unable, even though a good secret agent, to crack the code. His dead wife, Ivria, is such one in which they came to occupy separate bedrooms when Ivria became occupied with her master`s thesis on the Brontes. Husband and wife were also at war - until they observed a carefully maintained truce - over their daughter`s health(Ivria refused to acknowledge that Netta was suffering from a mild form of epilepsy). This thesis starts to ask for why Yoel put the book of in Helsinki when he suddenly returned to Israel. Oz mentioned five times of (Mrs. Dalloway) which is lost in Helsinki on a mission in his novel. Is that nothing meaning? What is his concerning with it? Why not Erich Maria Remarque`s ? Why not Thomas Mann`s ? My idea and answer is that two novels have a same Narrative structures, especially temporal structure.

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