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18권2호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 7
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KCI등재

1자치경찰의 민주적 통제를 위한 시도경찰위원회 구성 및 운영방안에 대한 제언

저자 : 박병욱 ( Park¸ Byungwoog )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 3-53 (51 pages)

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Korean police has had a dark history, mostly because of politcians like first president Syngman Rhee, who has abused the police power for a pursuit of political interest. So Korean police has been exploited improperly for manipulating the outcome of the election and intentionally surveilling the innocent people, who are then influential figures. Hence the political neutrality of Korean police has been debated. Even the Korean Constitution, which had been revised at 1960/6/15 had prescribed the political neutrality of Korean police as constitutional provision. In the near future korean police would be much stronger and more powerful because of benefit in return of reform of prosecution service and national intelligence service. Municipal police system is about to be implemented in the near future.
At this very time, the political neutrality and independence of municipal police are significantly important. English tripartite system of municipal police could give Korea some guidance to follow, in that its police committee provides a representative character for local populations as well as substantive oversight and management function over municipal police under political neutrality. It is largely because it is an independent and specialized body which is composed of the elected local councillors of local parliament, magistrates of court and business representatives nominated by a central panel. We can also refer to Japan's municipal police committee, which has stemmed from English triparite system, but is being “Japanized.” However we have to note that Japanese municipal police is considerably affected by the central government and the national police authority with minimum representativeness to local populations, although the municipal police is highly independent from its local government leader.
Bills to introduce the Municipal Police in the 20th Assembly, especially Bill of Democratic Party of Korea is submitted after a great deal of discussions. However on the political system, where the executive branch and parliamentary branch is divided, so called “divided structure composition” of korean local autonomy the independent and substantive role of municipal police committee on the Bill of Democratic Party of Korea can not be realised easily. So we can refer to municipal police of English tripartite system in order to strengthen the weakness of the Bill, such as representativeness to local populations, independence and political neutrality. Through strengthening municipal police committee, municipal police itself could execute its own works in independent, fair and politically neutral way. It could definitely contribute to improving contentment of the local population for municipal police service.
A divided structure on the level of local autonomy is principal based on Korean Local Government Act, not on Korean Constitution, especially in the domain of municipal police. So it is supposed that on the basis of Korean “divided structure composition” we can adopt English police committee system under tripartite system after due consideration.

KCI등재

2형사법 편향적 경찰활동에 대한 비판적 고찰

저자 : 황문규 ( Hwang¸ Mungyu )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 55-82 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the cause of the problem that the current police activities are overly criminal-oriented. The study also starts with the awareness that the area of administrative police for "public safety" through risk (or crime) prevention is being eroded. Based on this consciousness, we analyzed the causes of the problem and tried to suggest ways to cope with the police activities based on the criminal law.
There is a fear that the safety of the people can not be guaranteed from the crime (danger). This may lead to the contraction of on-the-spot police activities and consequent encroachment of the administrative police area.
In this background, what should we do in order to overcome the criminal justice-biased police activity? From the point of view of separation of police functions, first of all we have to separate administrative and judicial police. Through this, it is necessary to enhance the specialization of investigation by the judicial police on the one hand and strengthen the administrative police area on the other. Next, however, sufficient legal grounds for administrative police activities should be laid out to minimize the adverse effects of separation of administrative police and judicial police. The paradigm of police control through prosecution should be converted to court or democratic control. The procedural part of the warrant provision(by request of the prosecutor) in constitution should be deleted to reduce the rigidity of the warrant system.

KCI등재

3경찰의 드론 활용에 따른 형사법적 문제

저자 : 선종수 ( Sun¸ Jong Soo )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 83-103 (21 pages)

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New science technology has brought us affluence, yet on the other hand, it also has caused pain with unexpected problems. Drones developed for military purposes are closely related to all the realms of our life. These drones are being regarded as one of necessary mechanical equipments, and the size of their market is gradually increasing.
These drones are being used in various fields, such as disaster scenes, search for a missing person, narcotic investigation and etc., and they can be said to be very useful. On the other hand, drones have different problems, for example, the invasion of an individual's privacy by filming a person using a drone, housebreaking and use in a terror.
At present, drones have their regulation of definition in the 「Act on the Promotion and Foundation of Drone Utilization('the Drone Law' from hence)」 which was enacted as the 16420th law on April 30, 2019, and began to be enforced since May 1, 2020. Yet, while the 「Aviation Safety Act」 directly regulates drones, there is no regulation to clearly control drones in case drones are used for the activities to prevent or investigate crimes by investigation authorities. Because of which, if drones are abused in the process of using drones during the activities of the police, the problem that drones cannot be controlled can occur.
In the Korean criminal justice legal system, when drones are used by law enforcement agencies, there are no ground laws that can regulate them directly. As the ways to solve those problems, first, the establishment of new provisions of the existing laws, second, the establishment of new laws, third interpretation in the frame of the existing laws and regulations and others can be suggested. In particular, control with the enactment of new laws has been tried, but it has been failed. The suggestions can be estimated to have their own merits and demerits. In conclusion, in the present situation, the acceptable range and requirements for the use of drones by investigation agencies need to be set through the interpretation in the frame of the existing laws and regulations. Through this process, the legitimacy of the use of drones by investigation agencies will be able to be granted, and its danger will be removed.

KCI등재

4감염병예방법상 이동제한조치에 대한 법적 검토 - 코로나19 관련 독일의 법적상황 및 논의를 중심으로 -

저자 : 박원규 ( Park¸ Wonkyu )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 105-142 (38 pages)

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Nachdem das erstmals im Dezember 2019 in der chinesischen Stadt Wuhan aufgetretene neuartige Coronavirus weltweit verbreitet wurde, ist die Welt unter der gesundheitlichen Notlage. Unter dieser Notlage ergreifen die Gesundheitsbehörden verschiedene Maßnahmen, um die Weiterverbreitung von SARS-CoV-2 zu verhindern. Ein Beispiel dafür ist die Absonderung Kranker und Ansteckungsverdächtiger. Darüber hinaus haben Deutschland und andere europäische Länder strengere Corona-Maßnahmen, wie z. B. die Ausgangssperre, das Kontaktverbot, das Versammlungsverbot, eingeführt. Diese sog. infektionsschutzrechtlichen freiheitsbeschränkenden Maßnahmen verhindern die Verbreitung von SARS-CoV-2 dadurch, dass sie Kontakte von Infizierten zu anderen Personen reduzieren.
Die Rechtsgrundlage für diese Maßnahmen ist das Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG). Weil der Zweck des IfSG ist es, Leben und Gesundheit der Menschen vor Gefahren durch Infektionskrankheiten zu schützen, ist das IfSG als besonderes Gefahrenabwehrrecht zu qualifizieren. Jedoch hat das IfSG einige Besonderheiten, die sich vom allgemeinen Polizeirecht unterscheiden. Als Beispiele sind zu nennen: Gefahrenabwehrmaßnahmen bei Verdachtslagen, Erweiterung des Störerbegriffs, behördliche Pflicht zum Einschreiten. Auch bei der freiheitsbeschränkenden Maßnahmen sind diese Besonderheiten zu berücksichtigen. In Deutschland sind die Maßnahmen wie Ausgangssperre aufgrund der infektionschutzrechtlichen Generalklausel ergriffen, weil der Gesetzgeber die Ausbreitung von COVID-19 nicht vorausgesehen hatte. Diese Maßnahmen schränken aber die Grundrechte von Betroffenen erhelblich ein. Deshalb müssen für diese Maßnahmen hinreichend bestimmte Ermächtigungsgrundlagen geschaffen werden. Dabei ist besonders der Grundsatz der Verhältnismäßigkeit zu beachten.

KCI등재

5범죄수사 검증모델과 시각화 방안에 관한 연구

저자 : 박노섭 ( Park Ro Seop ) , 김지온 ( Kim Ji On ) , 김창식 ( Kim Chang Sik ) , 박성미 ( Park Sung Mi )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 143-175 (33 pages)

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최근 형사소송법 및 검찰청법 개정으로 수사경찰은 1차적 수사기관으로 독자적인 수사권을 행사하고, 수사 종결권을 부여받음에 따라 범죄혐의가 없는 경우 수사를 종결할 수 있는 권한을 확보하는 등 책임수사가 가능해졌다. 그러나 수사종결 후 고소인 등이 수사에 이의를 제기하면 사건을 검찰로 송치하게 되어 있어 수사결과의 객관성은 수사의 신뢰성과 직결된다. 또한 검사가 작성한 피의자신문조서의 증거능력이 제한됨에 따라 재판실무에서 변호인은 수사기관이 수집한 증거들을 기초로 이끌어 낸 수사결과에 내재되어 있는 논리적 취약점 등을 공략하는 전략을 구사할 것으로 예상된다. 따라서 수사경찰은 수사결과의 타당성을 객관적으로 확보하는 방안을 마련할 필요가 있다. 본 연구는 이러한 형사소송의 환경 변화에 수사 경찰이 능동적으로 대응하기 위해 범죄 수사에서 활용되고 있는 논증 방식과 문제점을 체계적으로 분석하고, 경찰 수사과정을 '발생한 사건을 재구성하는 과정(Crime Reconstruction)'과 이를 '검증하는 과정(Crime Verification)'으로 구분하는 새로운 패러다임의 도입 필요성을 제시하고 있다. 또한, 송치 전 검증의 효과성을 제고시키는 방안으로 수사추론 구조 시각화를 통한 검증방안을 대안으로 제시하였다. 사건의 유무죄 입증은 일반인인 법관 또는 시민법관의 이해능력을 전제로 한다. 따라서 범죄추론에 대한 결과를 일반인이 쉽게 이해할 수 있도록 효과적으로 제시할 수 있어야 하며, 가장 효과적인 방안중 하나가 수사과정을 시각화하는 것이다. 시각화 검증모델을 기반으로 한 수사추론 및 검증은 법정에서 변호인이 제시 가능한 반증이나 논리적 공격을 사전에 차단하거나 미리 대비할 수 있어 경찰 수사의 완성도를 높이고, 더 나아가 경찰 수사결과가 재판에서 온전히 인정되는 효과를 가져온다. 또한, 시각화를 통한 사건 검증은 향후 예상되는 수사관의 법정 증언을 위한 효과적인 대비수단으로 자리 잡을 수 있다. 수사결과에 대한 체계적이고 표준화된 검증 시스템이 구축되면 향후 모든 사건에 대해 검증할 수 있는 AI기반 수사검증 프로그램 개발로 연결 가능하다.


With the recent revision of the Criminal Procedure Act and the Prosecutors' Office Act, the Korean police have been able to conduct responsible investigations, such as exercising their investigative powers as the primary investigative agency and the right to end the investigation when there is no criminal charge. However, if a suspect or a victim challenges the validity of the investigation, the case is sent to the prosecution. In such cases, the objectivity of the investigation is directly relevant to the credibility of the investigation. Also, as the admissibility of the prosecution's suspect interrogation records as evidence became limited, lawyers are likely to attack logical vulnerabilities in the argument structure of the investigation results at the trial. Therefore, the police must develop a method to secure the validity of the investigation results objectively. This study systematically analyzes the reasoning methods used in criminal investigations and their issues to proactively respond to changes in the environment of criminal proceedings. It also suggests the necessity of introducing a new paradigm that divides the police investigation process into Crime Reconstruction and Crime Verification. Further, the study introduces visualization as a verification method to improve the crime verification process before forwarding the case to the prosecution. Proving one's innocence or guilt in court relies on the ability of the general judge or civil judge to follow the logic and evidence presented. Therefore, it is necessary to present the results of crime reasoning in a way the general public can understand easily, and one of the most effective methods is to visualize the investigation process. Investigation reasoning and verification based on the visualization verification model can prevent or prepare for counterattacks or logical attacks by lawyers, improving the overall police investigation, and ensure the court fully recognizes that police investigation results. Also, event verification through visualization can be an effective means of preparing for the future testimony of investigators. A systematic and standardized verification system for investigation results can develop to an AI-based investigation verification program that can verify all events in the future.

KCI등재

6인공지능(AI) 시대의 도래와 법제도의 방향에 관한 논의 - 독일의 인공지능 정책을 중심으로 -

저자 : 송기복 ( 5)song¸ Gi Bok )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 177-203 (27 pages)

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Artificial intelligence is gradually moving away from the field of research and is being used throughout everyday life, including self-driving, chatbot, biometric recognition, smart home, and medical devices. In addition, the utilization and application of big data is affecting various fields such as society, economy, politics, and law. Already in major advanced countries, discussions have been held to adjust the current legal system for the protection of data protection and privacy in telecommunications, industry, medical and financial sectors, the risk of discrimination by artificial intelligence, the issue of responsibility for artificial intelligence systems, and the establishment of ethical and artificial intelligence policy systems for artificial intelligence. Meanwhile, Germany has developed a high level of artificial intelligence research infrastructure (Infra) in connection with the federal government, state governments, research institutes, industries, and universities, and has developed widely in social, economic, and industrial sectors to make useful use of the benefits and convenience that artificial intelligence technology will bring. On the other hand, the legal system is being reviewed to cope with changes that will occur in various fields such as society, ethics, legal system, and culture due to the emergence of artificial intelligence technology and to prepare for the risks posed by artificial intelligence. First of all, based on the ethics needed in a series of processes such as designing, manufacturing, and utilizing artificial intelligence through technical standardization, and academic dialogue such as social, economic, and cultural sectors, the expansion of convergence on artificial intelligence's social impact, future effects by technology, and discussions on designing artificial intelligence to prevent artificial intelligence from threatening human safety.
In order to establish a legal system that can utilize artificial intelligence technology without conflict with existing social values and legal systems, this school intended to provide a forum for discussion on the direction of artificial intelligence policy in Korea, although it is insufficient.

KCI등재

7Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi 사건에 관한 ICC 상소심재판부의 판결(2020) 평석 - ICC 관할범죄를 범한 자에 대한 국내적 사면에 관한 쟁점을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김선일 ( Kim¸ Sun Il )

발행기관 : 한국경찰법학회 간행물 : 경찰법연구 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 205-229 (25 pages)

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The Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi case of Libyan Situation is regarded as a case that raises a serious issue as to whether domestic amnesty measures against those who commit crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC are permitted under international law. This is because the Rome Statute does not explicitly address this issue and are in serious legal hiatus.
On this matter, the Pre-Trial Chamber of the case stated that “there is a strong, growing, universal tendency that grave and systematic human rights violations which may amount to crimes against humanity by their very nature - are not subject to amnesties under international law.” About this, Counsel for Mr Gaddafi immediately appealed the decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber above, and the final judgment of the Appeals Chamber on this issue was presented on March 9, 2020.
Contrary to the public expectation, the Appeals Chamber found that the Pre-Trial Chamber's holdings above were merely obiter dicta and just said that “international law is still in the developmental stage on the question of acceptability of amnesties.” By the way, after a comprehensive review of treaties and precedents in the areas of international human rights law, international humanitarian law, and international criminal law, the Judge Carranza of the Appeals Chamber, through his Separate and Concurring Opinion, drew a meaningful conclusion that “there is well-established law, principles and standards confirming that general amnesties for grave human rights violations, such as those caused by the commission of crimes under the jurisdiction of the ICC, are incompatible with international law.”
However, there are some issues that need critical review, such as whether the position presented by the Appeals Chamber or the Judge Carranza has any legal implications under international law. Against this background, this article examines the content of the majority opinion of the Appeals Chamber in the Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi case and the main content of the judge Carranza's Separate and Concurring opinion, and then critically evaluates those based on the judgment of the Appeals Chamber.

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