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수록범위 : 1권0호(1982)~32권3호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 1,018
영어영문학21
32권3호(2019년 09월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1블레이크의 『경험의 노래』 다시 읽기

저자 : 양승갑 ( Sungkap Yang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 5-33 (29 pages)

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William Blake states that the purpose of his work is an endeavour to restore “the Golden Age” of human beings. His vocation for the restoration is revealed explicitly in Songs of Innocence and of Experience, an early production in his writing career. In the epigram, he says that the songs are written for “shewing the two contrary states of the human soul.” From the title itself we can draw easily what the two contrary states of the human soul are. And in Songs of Innocence, it's easy to tell what 'innocence' means. The prevailing motifs and imagery in the poems show that it's an innocent status of the human mind which can be found in young boys and girls inexperienced in the tough world.
But in Songs of Experience, 'experience' resists obstinately being translated into 'corruption' as opposed to 'innocence.' Songs of Experience witnesses many young boys and girls deserted and tormented by grown-ups especially by the established. The fact that the former-dwellers in the world of innocence are harshly abused in the world means that the experience is not the state of the human soul or mind but 'the conditions in living.' And also the translation of experience into corruption impairs the coherence of the whole context in Songs of Experience.
Experience as the conditions in living invites inevitably the problem of 'justice.' In Songs of Experience, Blake criticizes severely the 'logocentrism' which has been corrupted into the dominant ideology by the ruling class, especially by the religious. The religious who have monopolized all the information in the name of religious mysticism curb the reasons of people and their bodies as well.
Blake believes in the original status of human beings but also believes that the deep-rooted injustice done by the established has been spoiling the prime quality. Only the society of justice in which reciprocal equality is fulfilled can restore “the Golden Age” of human beings. The predicaments of the modern world in which the social polarization between the rich and the poor has been deepened clarify that Songs of Experience can be a prophetic and apocalyptic gospel for us.

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This study discusses Toni Morrison's cross-cultural perspectives of African Americans' community spirit and Hippies' individualistic spirit in God Help the Child. Morrison shows her perspectives of African Americans' community spirit and Hippies' individualistic spirit in light of their primitivism which sets a higher value on spontaneity, simplicity, and anti-materialism.
In the novel, Morrison describes a hippie couple who is directed against the 20th century conservative middle-class values, such as materialism, commercialism and consumerism of the post-industrial society. The couple live individualistic lives in the remote country from urban and civil advantages. Nevertheless, they willingly help their racial outcast Bride out of her car which crashed into one of the street trees, take her to the hospital, take care of her for six weeks, and criticize her materialistic values. They practice their community spirit for people in need without hesitation. Therefore, the portrayal of the hippies can be traced back to that of Morrison's African American female character Pilate Dead in Song of Solomon. Pilate lives in a grove of four huge pine trees at the back of her house which is far away form the post-industrial world. Her association with the grove marks her primitive-naturalistic life styles and values. As the hippie couple do, she lives without any civilized necessities and facilities. She not only bridges between ancestors and descendants but also helps her nephew Milkman Dead out of his father's inhumane materialism and middle-class hierarchial values to show him into the primitive history and myth of African-American ancestors.
Finally, Morrison shows that the cultural boundaries between African Americans' community spirit and Hippies' anti-civilized spirit can be dissolved into the primitive, naturalistic, and communal spirit.

KCI등재

3화해와 치유의 작화-사라 룰의 『죽은 남자의 휴대폰』

저자 : 임미진 ( Meejin Lim )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 61-82 (22 pages)

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Sarah Ruhl's Dead Man's Cell Phone is a play about cell phones, meditation, death, love, and disconnection in the digital age. It is common to communicate the latest information through mobile phones in this modern era. In this work, the cell phone is a medium for communicating with the world of death as the most advanced communication device ever invented. It is also a reminder of connection that is absent in this world, and it is a medium that fuses reality and surrealism.
Dead Man's Cell Phone is a comedy, that is anti-Aristotelian in composition and Dionysian in spirit. In this work, reconciliation and healing between the worlds of life and death are driven by the confabulation of the main character Jean. The origin of confabulation, the act of creating a story in the mind, include 'fables'. Therefore, confabulation has a certain universal truth regardless of whether or not the specifics are true. This play is a story about a dead man, Gordon, and Jean, who witnessed Gordon's last moment in the world. Jean's confabulation shows that both the living and the dead can heal each other's wounds and close the gap between the two, so that a person's life can be reconciled even after death.

KCI등재

4비교과 영어 다독 프로그램을 전후로 한 수준별 학습자의 인식 연구

저자 : 강은영 ( Eun Young Kang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 93-116 (24 pages)

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This paper has an aim at examining graded learners' perception before and after extra-curricular English extensive reading. The goal of this ER program is to offer students an opportunity of 'pleasure reading.' It provides them with a lot of graded readers which are allowed to be chosen by them. The participants have to read at least 2 books and they can present oral book reports biweekly if they want. This program has its characteristics in that there are no test, evaluation, writing report, and diary. According to the pre-perception, the high level students want to improve and maintain their English and the low level students want to be more familiar with English. And all the students want to develop their reading habits. At the end of the program they are quite much satisfied with this ER program and have got good reading habits.

KCI등재

5군집분석을 이용한 영어 능숙도별 영어 쓰기 불안감 분석

저자 : 김정은 ( Jeong-eun Kim ) , 송지영 ( Jiyoung Song )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 107-133 (27 pages)

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The present study aimed to investigate learners' different levels of second language (L2) writing anxiety across proficiency levels. Thirty-five Korean students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) participated in this study. Their proficiency levels were categorized using a cluster analysis in which the learners were categorized into two clusters: a high group and a low group. The learners' L2 writing anxiety was assessed using Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (Cheng, 2004), consisting of three components of L2 writing anxiety, i.e., somatic anxiety, avoidance behavior, and cognitive anxiety. The analysis for the two groups showed differential writing anxiety across the three anxiety components. The results were then discussed, and relevant pedagogical implications provided.

KCI등재

6대형ㆍ다수준 EFL 수업에서 의사소통중심 교수법

저자 : 양소영 ( Soyoung Yang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 135-156 (22 pages)

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This study examines not only Korean students' perceptions of employing communicative language teaching (CLT) in large multi-level EFL classes but also the main factors affecting their perceptions. One hundred and nineteen college students, ranging in English proficiency from beginner to low-intermediate, from two intact classes implementing CLT for one academic year participated in this study. Data from surveys, follow-up interviews, and field notes were collected and analyzed by using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that students identify the CLT classes positively with respect to having an interest and self-motivation in different communicative activities, focusing on tasks, and improving their meaningful use of English. The findings support the results of the original study conducted in large homogeneous classes although the four factors were found to be more beneficial to relatively higher level, rather than lower level students. Thus, it seems that for beginners, collaborative learning, including pair or group work, is less effective in large mixed-level classes.

KCI등재

7L2 성인의 콜로케이션 지식 향상을 위한 음악의 효과

저자 : 이연준 ( Yun Joon Jason Lee )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 157-181 (25 pages)

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the co-relationship between L2 adult learners and music. In this study, three songs were used: Coward of the County, Lucille, and The Gambler sung by Kenny Rogers. The participants were five graduate students majoring English education in a Korean university, and their English language proficiency was high intermediate with advance reading and grammar knowledge. Participants were asked to memorize the lyrics of the three songs and to respond to a question about the difficulty of the memorization. All the participants responded negatively; that is, they found the songs problematic to memorize. They were then asked to highlight both familiar and unfamiliar expressions. The collected data was analyzed in terms of lexical collocation (LC) and grammatical collocation (GC). The results showed that the participants were unfamiliar with about half of the LC and most likely lead to causing issues memorizing the lyrics. However, the participants had fewer problems with GC due to their prior knowledge of GC. It was learned that the participants had never been trained to develop awareness of collocation. If the participants had learned vocabulary in a specified context, they would have learnt the relevant collocations. Western music can provide this context because it is story based and consequently learners would maintain interest in the music and learn the collocations more readily.

KCI등재

8Paper Bullets and the Crisis of the Symbolic Order: A Study of English Civil War Prose

저자 : Jaemin Choi

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 183-201 (19 pages)

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By showcasing and analyzing three separate texts from the English Civil War (The King's Cabinet Opened; Eikon Basilike; A Fiery Flying Roll), this paper explores how the radical shift of print culture after the collapse of state censorship reflected on and strengthened the crisis of the symbolic order in the domains of politics. The King's Cabinet Opened exemplifies the Parliament's new approach to the use of print. By sending King Charles' private documents and letters to print, the Parliament attempted to turn public sentiments against King Charles, thereby finding a more effective way of undermining his authority and power. Eikon Basilike is a sort of counter attack on the part of King Charles to justify his kingship by using the same print media with a view of an emerging readership constituted of common people. King Charles used Eikon Basilike as a prop to shine his final performance at the stage of Whitehall to complete his self-fashioning as a martyr. A Fiery Flying Roll, the third piece under examination, tells us that the exploitation of print to weaken the symbolic power of established authority was not limited to disagreements between elite groups. Against Coppe's apocalyptic vision announced clearly in the pamphlet speaks the fact that print was now embraced even among socially and politically marginalized groups to challenge the basic premises of hierarchical society that had hitherto suppressed their utopian dreams. In conclusion, these writings are the landmarks attesting to a dramatic increase in the use of print as a deconstructive force to subvert the established order and power, anticipating the arrival of post-modern cultural practices of the late 20th century.

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9Jonathan Swift's Satiric Imagination: A Study of Swift's Satires

저자 : Moonsoon Kang

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 203-224 (22 pages)

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This article studies why Jonathan Swift's satirical works are characterized by many critics as uncertain, contradictory, ambivalent, ambiguous, paradoxical, or undecidable. Those words that describe troubling and vexing features can be traced back to Swift's unique satiric imagination from which originate all the troubling and vexing features. In order to explores the nature of Swift's satiric imagination, this article analyzes Swift's attitude towards satire and how he uses satiric imagination. For Swift, satire and the imagination are the two fundamental constituents towards which he showed a deeply ambiguous or ambivalent attitude.

KCI등재

10Analyses for Two Different Types of Apposition

저자 : Yoon-kyoung Joh

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 225-244 (20 pages)

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Kim (2014) has previously addressed the semantic difference between the loose AC and the close AC by claiming that the former evokes a conventional implicature while the latter simply induces an at-issue meaning. However, in terms of the IQ test suggested by Bach (1999), the propositional meaning generated by the loose AC cannot be considered as a conventional implicature. Pointing out this problem, this paper addresses the difference between the two constructions in a new way, relying on the Generative Lexicon Theory advanced by Pustejovsky (1996). The loose AC projects two independent phrases as the anchor and the appositive. However, in the case of the close AC, the anchor and the appositive intrinsically depend on each other since one element is the overt realization of the argument of the Formal quale in the Qualia structure of the other element. This semantic characteristic of the close AC also results in its compounding-like syntactic nature. This proposal can explain four additional grammatical contrasts observed between the two constructions.

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1연안해역에서 석유오염물질의 세균학적 분해에 관한 연구

(2006)홍길동 외 1명심리학41회 피인용

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2미국의 비트코인 규제

(2006)홍길동41회 피인용

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