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경쟁법연구 update

Journal of Korean Competition Law

  • : 한국경쟁법학회
  • : 사회과학분야  >  법학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 연속간행물
  • : 반년간
  • : 1598-2335
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1989)~41권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 476
경쟁법연구
41권0호(2020년 05월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1공정거래위원회의 2019년 부당한 공동행위 심결례 분석 - 입찰담합 사례를 중심으로 -

저자 : 박준영 ( Joon Young Paul Park )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 3-43 (41 pages)

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Bei dieser Studie handelt es sich um die Entscheidungspraxis von Korean Fair Trade Commission(“KFTC“) über die Submissionskartellen im Jahr 2019. Nach der in dieser Studie überprüften und analysierten Fällen sind die Submissionskartellen ein großen Anteil der von KFTC sanktionierten Fälle eingenommen. Daher kann eine praktische und theoretische Erwägung dieser Situation von Bedeutung sein.
Diese Studie erläutet, dass KFTC die Wettbewerbsbeschränkung bzw. Rechtswidrigkeit des Submissionkartells in extenso selten prüft, sondern einfach als sog. “per-se illegal“ erfasst. Darüber hinaus kann man auch bestätigen, dass KFTC die verschiedene Methode des Submissions bei der Kontrolle nicht berücksichtigt, was entscheidend um die Tatsache und die rechtliche Streitpunkte zu verstehen ist.
Der Zweck oder die Hauptabsicht dieser Studie ist wie folgend: Erstens sollen die betreffenden Interessen bei der Ermittlung des Rechtwidrigkeit des Submissionskartellvertrags erforderlichenfalls abgewägt werden. Zweitens soll die Submissionskartellkontrolle von KFTC nicht nur nachträglich betriebt sein, sondern auch für die Prävention dienen, wie das endgültige Ziel der Regulierung läutert. Die wirksame Verbeugung(?) kann durch die Berücksichtigung der Art und Weise des Vergabeverfahrens verwirklichen, wie z.B. offenen Verfahren, nicht offenen Verfahren, Verhandlungsverfahren, wettbewerblichen Dialog oder der Innovationspartnerschaft usw.
Außerdem gilt das deutsche Vergaberecht - das Kartellvergaberecht, Teil 4 des GWB - als ein Vorbild für die Verbrechungsverhütung des Kartellrechts durch Submissionskartell, vor allem das Wettbewerbsprinzip der Vergabe, was sich in zwei Komponenten, der Freiheitsprinzip und das Fairnessprinzip des Wettbewerbs unterteilen.

KCI등재

2공정거래법상 대기업집단 규제 심판결 검토 - 기업집단 태광 및 대림의 사익편취 사건을 중심으로 -

저자 : 이혁 ( Hyuk Lee )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 44-82 (39 pages)

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Since the Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act(hereinafter “KFTA”) was enacted in 1980, large business group regulations such as establishment of Holding Company, limitations on Cross Shareholding and Circular Shareholding, debt guarantees for affiliates and disenfranchisement of voting rights of finance company or insurance company were adopted to control minority structure, so called chaebol. In 2013 the KFTA promulgated a new provision, Article 23-2(Prohibition on Undue Support Practices to Specially Related Persons) to prevent unfair support for specially related persons and usurpation of corporate opportunity in the name of economic justice. Recently in case of Korean Airlines the Seoul High Court ruled that at the level of illegality determination the interpretation of Article 23-2 required the solely determined “inappropriateness” like as unfair assistance for parties with special interests to businesses(Article 23, Paragraph 1, Item 7). The most highly contentious issue in this case is the interpretation of “inappropriate benefit” of Article 23-2. Though there are many opinions sharply divided on the ruling, KFTC have prosecuted several cases on the interpretation of the determination of “inappropriateness” as the negative ever since.
For the purposes of the legislation of Article 23-2, the interpretation of “inappropriate benefit” is dissimilar to the “inappropriateness” of Article 23, Paragraph 1, Item 7, if stipulated in the four conducts of Article 23-2, such benefit should be considered “inappropriateness” broadly. In the interpretation and enforcement of Article 23-2, the paramount consideration must be the purposes of the legislation of Article 23-2, preventing any excessive concentration of economic power and striving for balanced development of the national economy.

KCI등재

3공정위의 최근 불공정거래행위 심결례에 대한 소고 - 불공정거래행위의 일반적 금지규정의 후퇴 -

저자 : 박세환 ( Sehwan Park )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 83-119 (37 pages)

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Nous observons, dans cet article, les décisions récentes de la KFTC(Korea Fair Trade Commission) à l'égard des pratiques commerciales déloyales. D'abord, en se référant au nombre des décisions, l'abus de position supérieure dans la relation commerciale(article 23, ①, 4ème de la La loi sur la régulation de monopole et le commerce loyal, ci-après 'LRMPCL') a l'importance primordiale. Ensuite, nous nous intéresssons à l'affaire Gore-tex qui ressemble un peu à la distribution sélective en Europe et en France.
Au demeurant, au regard du nombre d'affaires et de la somme de l'amende, il est à noter que les règles générales à l'égard des pratiques commerciales déloyales(article 23, ① de la LRMPCL) aient, au fur et à mesure, moins d'importance par rapport aux règles spéciales dans les lois spécifiques(par exemple, la loi sur le grand distributeur ou la loi sur la sous-traitance). Cependant, il faut aussi rappeler un risque non négligeable de la dépendance à la loi spécifique dans le domaine des pratiques commerciales déloyales.

KCI등재

4최근 가맹사업법 및 대규모유통업법 주요 심·판결 분석

저자 : 강선희 ( Sunhee Kang )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 120-166 (47 pages)

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In order to tackle issues resulting from Abusing the Power and build Fair Trade, special laws such as AFTLD and FFTA have been enacted since 2000's. The KFTC is actively implementing laws.
Because of the characteristics of the distribution structure in Korea, where a handful of distributors enter the mart, department store, outlet, and TV home shopping at the same time, vendors who want to establish a stable and continuous trading relationship with large retailers are passive in reporting illegal acts even if they experience unfair trading practices by distributors to avoid stigma in the industry. In terms of aggressiveness of reporting, the affiliated business is better, but this is not always the case because there may be a binding act of the head office due to its characteristics in the affiliated business. Therefore, franchisees may be exposed to potential risks of unfair trade practices from affiliate headquarters.
In view of this situation, the KFTC does not rely solely on reporting, and it seems that it is trying to find out cases of law violations through investigation by authority and eliminate blind spots in law enforcement.
However, the court's ruling has not yet been consolidated as much as that of the Fair Trade Act, so it cannot be said that the jurisdiction of the FFTA and and the AFTLD has sufficiently developed.
In the reality that various types of disproportionate acts, such as unfair transfer of sales promotion fees under the FFTA, are in question, the court basically decided that the criteria for judging disadvantaged acts under Article 23 of the Fair Trade Act should be used as criteria for judging disadvantaged acts under the franchise law. Nevertheless, the court made a judgment by applying a slightly different law for each type of act corresponding to the disadvantaged act, and failed to provide a clear standard for determining whether or not to be disadvantaged. In this regard, it is necessary to develop legal principles through further research and accumulation of precedents.
In addition, in the franchise business, the tension between the court's judgment on the purchase forcing action and the decision of the KFTC should be resolved through the specification and rationalization of the criteria for recognizing essential items.
In addition, the issue of promotional events and cost sharing can be said to be a common issue for both affiliated stores and suppliers of large distribution companies. In the case of the AFTLD, the relationship between restrictions on the dispatch of employees to suppliers and provisions on unfair transfer of sales promotion costs was not settled. In some cases, provided that the necessary conditions for dispatching employees are met, it is legal to enlist the dispatched personnel to participate in the promotion and to pay the labor cost to the supplier. Nevertheless, there is a concern that the effectiveness of the regulation on the non-transfer of sales promotion costs may be lowered. In order to prevent this, the law that is related with the overlapping application between the two provisions needs to be revised.
The KFTC also needs some more careful and prudent execution in line with the law of precedent. It is a matter of recognizing facts and proving.
Considering that the parent law of both laws is an act of abuse of trade status in Article 23 of the Fair Trade Act, both laws need to achieve some degree of balance and consistency in terms of concept unification and criteria for illegality. In addition, on the premise that a certain level of equilibrium is to be achieved, it is necessary to proceed in the direction of presenting the criteria for illegality of each law.

KCI등재

5디지털 시대, 해외 경쟁당국의 소비자법 집행과 그 시사점 - EU집행위원회와 독일연방카르텔청을 중심으로 -

저자 : 유영국 ( You Young Gug )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 169-210 (42 pages)

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Der Prozess, der die Rolle von Wettbewerbsbehörden definiert oder organisiert, kann nicht in einer Weise begrenzt werden, die den Funktionsumfang als eine einzige “Organisation” ableitet. Darüber hinaus kann es nicht wünschenswert sein, dass die Wettbewerbsbehörden der “unwandelbaren Rolle und Funktion” angenommen werden, wenn man die Eigenschaften des “Wettbewerbes” als Phänomen betrachtet, das “dynamische Wesen”, die “Veränderbarkeit” des Marktes und seine Funktionsweise.
Obwohl die primäre Aufgabe der Wettbewerbsbehörden basiert auf der Auslegung und Anwendung des Wettbewerbsrechts, aber je nach der Zeit und den Marktbedingungen oder der Wettbewerbslage der einzelnen Länder können Unterschiede und Veränderungen zumindest in ihrer Richtung folgen. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die Durchsetzung des Wettbewerbsrechts oder der Wettbewerbspolitik mittelbar oder unmittelbar zu anderen Zwecken oder Werten beitragen kann, über den Rahmen der einzigartigen Diskussion über die Zieltheorie des Wettbewerbsrechts hinaus.
Die Themen sog. “Industrie 4.0” und “Digitale Wirtschaft”, die der jüngste Wandel der Gesellschaft, der Industrie und des Marktumfelds symbolisieren, beeinflussen sowohl die Wettbewerbsbehörden als auch die Marktteilnehmer erheblich. Darüber hinaus wird versucht, neue Normen und Systeme zu schaffen oder die Befugnisse der Wettbewerbsbehörden zu erweitern, als Teil der wettbewerbsrechtlichen Anpassung zu diesen drastischen Veränderungen. Vor diesem Hintergrund sollte die Diskussion über die Rolle der Wettbewerbsbehörden auf der Grundlage von umfassenden Überlegungen über verschiedene Faktoren wie die Marktbedingungen und die Veränderung der Wettbewerbsbe- dingungen, die Kohärenz des bestehenden Systems zur Rechtsdurchsetzung und die Notwendigkeit eines Rịchtungswechsels bei der Wettbewerbs- und der Verbraucherpolitik erfolgen.
In diesem Sinne ist es bemerkenswert, dass das Muster und die Rolle des Verbrauchers von der wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Struktur stark beeinflusst werden, und dass in der “im digitalen Zeitalter” die Rolle der Anbieter und Verbraucher als traditionelle Rollenzuweisung oder als reiner Verbraucher zunehmend verschwindet.
In diesem Kontext muss diskutiert werden, ob Verbraucherbegriffe, Status und Rollen in einem traditionellen Markt auch in der digitalen Zeit gültig sind, ob Verbraucher weiterhin als Schutzobjekte begrenzt werden können, wenn dies der Fall ist, und ob grundlegende Fragen darüber gestellt werden müssen, ob das bestehende Schutzsystem ordnungsgemäß funktionieren kann. Und es muss auch darüber diskutiert werden, ob aktive Änderungen in der Wettbewerbs- und Verbraucherrechtspolitik, die bislang von den Wettbewerbsbehörden aufrechterhalten wurden, unvermeidlich sind.

KCI등재

6외국 사업자의 약관에 대한 심사 및 집행

저자 : 이선희 ( Sun Hee Lee )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 211-241 (31 pages)

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The FTC has the authority to examine the terms and conditions of foreign operators and take corrective measures, impose administrative fines, etc. by extraterritorial application of Act on the Regulation of Terms and Conditions or by policy need to carry out the purpose of protecting consumers under Article 27 of the Private International Law.
The FTC's review by abstract content control aims to prevent unfair terms and conditions from being written and used. As a result, it tends to be more or less idealistic, so as not to be disadvantageous to the customer in all cases, excluding the possibility of being interpreted in favor of the operator on specific issues. In addition, the FTC, the executive body of the competition policy, may use de facto coercion in the consultation and recommendation process for correction.
Nevertheless, to date, the assessment of FTC's role in review on the contractual terms and conditions is taken generally positive in terms of consumer protection, and legislation is unlikely to take place that will replace FTC within a short period of time.
However, it should be careful not to interfere too much with administrative regulations on the terms and conditions to be used in private legal relations.

KCI등재

7복수의 사업자에 의한 부당한 출고조절행위와 제재의 공동책임

저자 : 황태희 ( Tae Hi Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 245-266 (22 pages)

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In the 'BCG Preventive Vaccine' case of the KFTC, two market dominant undertakings have gained unfair economic benefits by discontinuing the supply of low-priced goods(A Vaccine) and increasing the sale of high-priced products(B Vaccine), which have similar preventive function. Despite the competition between the two product suppliers, they were able to enjoy exclusive profits by adjusting the release of the products because the business operator who reduced the volume of the α vaccine by canceling the import is the same economic entity in which the same person actually controls the business. This case was sentenced to be illegal by the KFTC to make unfair benefits by adjusting the release of the item, taking advantage of the difference in price from similar items in the same market.
Here, the problem of the joint liability against violations is borne by all companies as a single one, but the principle is that sanctions are imposed only on those who actually control the supplement. However, the KFTC's disposition imposed on undertakings who enjoy exclusive profits through the supply control act, although they did not perform by themselves, would be reasonable in terms of the effectiveness of the Act. It is necessary to revise laws and regulations on how to impose the joint liability.

KCI등재

8기업결합 심사 시 경쟁제한성 판단요소로써 혁신유인 저해의 역할 - EU 집행위원회의 Dow/DuPont 사건이 주는 시사점을 중심으로 -

저자 : 강지원 ( Jiwon Kang )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 267-304 (38 pages)

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Inherently uncertain nature of the merger reviews by the competition authorities gets worse when it meets the task of analyzing the impact of future R&D activities on competition. The relationship between the competitiveness of a market and its impact on incentives to innovate is a question that remains yet to be settled in competition law and economics, tracing back to the classical debate between Schumpeter and Arrow.
The European Commission's 2017 Dow/DuPont merger decision could be said to set both good and bad precedents in a string of caselaw that shed light on the issue of the merged party's incentive to innovate. The Dow/DuPont decision broke a new ground for adopting the notion of “innovation spaces” where early R&D activities of the merging firms at the discovery stage are “competing” each other with no specific similar pipeline products identified in a market. The Commission's assessment of the merger's short term innovation effect-the likely discontinuance, delay, or re-orientation of the merger party's overlapping R&D projects-was also a notable success. The analytical framework adopted by the Commission in evaluating the importance of the merged party as innovator, the closeness of innovation competition, etc. showed a far more systematic and comprehensive approach than its previous merger decisions.
Having said that, the Commission's novel theory of harm in its long term assessment of the incentive to innovate in the overall industry was rather an unwelcomed departure from its past merger decisions. Relying heavily on the structural but unquantifiable effect of the elimination of the rivalry in innovation competition, the Commission largely disregarded in its analysis of harm such outweighing factors as appropriation, pesticide resistance, and industry regulation.
The KFTC's recently revised Merger Guidelines set out a framework to assess harm to innovation for the first time, incorporating some lessons learned from the relevant EU merger decisions including the Dow/DuPont one. While the virtue of the amendment of the Guidelines lies in its attempt to have innovation its own independent place in the KFTC's merger control in the technology-driven industries, the Guidelines still leave many important questions unanswered: innovation market definition, analytical tool to evaluate the “incentives”(as distinguished from capabilities to innovate) of the merged party to innovate.

KCI등재

9대법원 판결에 나타난 공동행위 성립요건으로서 상호성에 관한 고찰

저자 : 홍명수 ( Hong Myungsu )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 305-331 (27 pages)

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In a series of rulings on cases of cartels under the Monopoly Regulation Act, the Supreme Court shows that it understands interrelation as a requisite for establishment. In particular, in the case of Universal Music Supreme Court ruled that cartel regulated under Article 19 clause 1 of the Monopoly Regulation Act mean agreements, this agreement includes not only explicit agreements but also implied ones, it is based on meeting of the minds among cartel participants and the interrelation of the meeting of the minds shall be demonstrated for the verification of the agreement. The ruling has since had a substantial impact on the Supreme Court's ruling on cartels.
It seems reasonable for the Supreme Court to identify interrelation as a requirement for the establishment of cartels. However, there is a question of judging on the basis of whether there is sufficient possibility of independent action in identifying interrelation. This method of judgment can cause concerns of under-execution(false negative) in relation to the cartels subject to regulation. Considering the characteristics of oligopolistic market structures, it should be considered that participants act strategically and the their attitude toward competition should also be reflected in the judgment of interrelation.

KCI등재

10AI 알고리즘 가격설정과 이른바 '알고리즘 묵시적 담합' 문제에 대한 고찰

저자 : 주진열 ( Ju Jinyul )

발행기관 : 한국경쟁법학회 간행물 : 경쟁법연구 41권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 332-368 (37 pages)

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This article addressed some confusing problems of the so-called Algorithmims-Driven Tacit Collusion (ATC) - the hypothetical situation of Algorithmic Price Parallelism without sellers' agreement (APP) in the online markets. Because pricing algorithm is a just tool rather than independent agent, there are no involvement of human behaviours in the process of APP. For this reason, it is not proper to use the term of conscious parallelisms or tacit collusion in the context of APP. Considering the realities of the online markets as well as the level of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mathematics, it does not seem that APP may occur in the near future. Moreover APP cannot be regulated by competition law just because there are no human involvement in APP. It seems that the hypothetical scenario of ATC reflects a kind of AI Dystopia, such as the Singularity scenario, which can never be proved. In this sense, the ATC hypothesis seems like a science fiction rather than a theory.

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