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연세의사학 update

Yonsei Journal of Medical History

  • : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소
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  • : 1226-847X
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1997)~21권2호(2018) |수록논문 수 : 178
연세의사학
21권2호(2018년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI후보

1차례

저자 : 연세대학교의과대학의사학과의학사연구소

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 21권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Exploring the “Inner Landscapes”: the Kaitai shinsho (1774) and Its Prehistory

저자 : Wolfgang Michel-zaitsu

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 21권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 7-34 (28 pages)

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Previous research on the translation of Johan Adam Kulmus' “Anatomic Tables” and the publication of the “New Book of Anatomy” (Kaitai shinsho) tends to focus on the individual genius and farsightedness of the physicians involved and the obstacles they encountered. This study sheds light on the historical background. It gives an outline of the indigenous developments, foreign influences, and various medical and nonmedical interactions in 17th- and early 18th-century Japan that led to a new view of the human body, anatomical dissections, and eventually the translation of European anatomy books.

KCI후보

3전근대 중국의 해부와 신체관

저자 : 김대기 ( Kim Dae-ki )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 21권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 35-52 (18 pages)

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In premodern times, China had two turning points for the development of human body drawings. First, in the era of the North Song dynasty, which followed the Tang dynasty, the human body was dissected two times to produce both Kuhwibeomojangdo and Jonjindo. The drawing of the human body was based on knowledge from the dissection of the human body to be free from Taoism and became closer to today's anatomy-based human body drawing. Second, in the sixteenth century, another human body drawing appeared presenting a different shape than that of the previous era. This drawing reflected physical science discourses made after the Song dynasty, not new anatomy knowledge. The anatomic knowledge in China did not change after the Song dynasty until the introduction of Western anatomic knowledge.
Before the advent of Wang Qing-ren's Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Benjamin Hobson's Quantixinlun (Outline of Anatomy and Physiology), the ancient Chinese recognized the human body not only as a mechanical being, but also as a holistic being. Based on practical dissections, Confucian theories, and the competition of schools, the ancient Chinese developed Chinese anatomy.

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Kaitai shinsho (解體新書) is an anatomical book important to modern Japanese medical history. The publishing of Kaitai shinsho created a movement to learn Dutch and Western sciences. As a result, Japan had the fastest push for Western modernization in East Asia. Sugita Genpaku (杉田玄白) and his colleagues, who translated Kaitai shinsho, thoroughly rejected the unscientific features of traditional Chinese medicine with regards to anatomy. They had absolute trust in Western studies because of the exact and detailed descriptions of Western anatomy. It was clear anatomy was the basic science of medicine.
Kaitai shinsho and Jutei kaitai shinsho (重訂解體新書) changed the minds of the Japanese in the fields of medicine, culture, and history. Otsuki Gentaku (大 槻玄澤), the author of Jutei kaitai shinsho, turned it into a positive anatomy by emphasizing the history of the anatomy. He overcame the worldview centered on China and made the idea that China was the same as other countries in the Japanese position. By emphasizing the neurohumor, he strengthened functional explanations that were difficult to explain in anatomy and used logic to overcome traditionalists who criticized anatomy.

KCI후보

5일본의 해부학 서적 번역과 한말 해부학 교과서

저자 : 김영수 ( Kim Young-soo )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 21권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 79-99 (21 pages)

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This paper examines how Japanese translated anatomy books imported from western countries in the Meiji period, including Imada Tsukanu's Jitsuy!kaib!gaku (實用解剖學), determined the meaning of Haebuhak (해부학), the first Korean anatomy textbook published in Korea, related to the medical education system and medical terminology in East Asia.
With the translation of Kaitai sinsho (解體新書) in the mid-eighteenth century, the translation of medical terminology in Japan continued. Around the mid-nineteenth century, many western books relating to politics, philosophy, laws and medicine were translated into Japanese under the modernization and westernization policy of the Meiji Government.
Western medical terminology was actively translated into Japanese. Some matched traditional medical terminology, however, others needed new words to express different perspectives for the human body. Newly translated words were created by combining Chinese characters (Z!go), which were then assigned to the new medical terminology. Various medical terms were produced, however the unification of terms was not achieved easily because it had not been accomplished in western countries either. From the late 1870s, the medical school at the University of Tokyo led medical education, and its textbook spread other medical schools. This contributed development and unification of medical terms as a result. Jitsuy!kaib!gaku (實用解剖學) published in 188 7 by Imada Tsukanu, a professor of the department of anatomy at the University of Tokyo is an appropriate example. This book gained popularity for medical education because it included mainly German anatomy knowledge, along with some of British and American information that had already been imported into Japan with a large number of anatomic drawings.
Oliver Avison, the director of Jejungwon and Severance Hospital, chose Imada's book to translate into Korean by considering the political and social surroundings of East Asia in the early twentieth century. Its educational suitability such as the table of contents, anatomic drawings were also reasons he chose to translate this particular book. As a result, the translation of Imada's book into Korean brought the spread of anatomical knowledge in Korea, which was related to the formation of the anatomical knowledge and medical terminology in Meiji Japan. However, Avison and his disciple Kim Pil-soon revised the content and terminology based on their medical knowledge, also tried to use Hangul instead of Chinese terms referring to the human body.
The publication of Haebuhak (해부학) holds great significance because it provided a chance for the general acceptance of the anatomical knowledge that came into East Asia by using the country's native language.

KCI후보

6최초의 한글 해부학 교과서 『해부학』(1906)의 서지와 번역 특성 고찰

저자 : 고은숙 ( Ko Eun-sook )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 21권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 101-125 (25 pages)

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This paper aims to examine the bibliographic and translational characteristics of Anatomy, the first Korean anatomy textbook published in 1906. Anatomy is the most important basic field in Western medicine, which distinguishes itself from the traditional medicines of Korea. The 1906 publishing of Anatomy, by the Jejungwon (the imperial hospital-cum-medical school), is significant because it presented Western medicine in Korean. This contributed to the naturalization of Western medicine in Korea. Previous studies emphasized that Kim Pil-sun, who translated with Dr. Oliver R. Avison (an American missionary doctor), tried to explain unfamiliar concepts in simple Korean while including personal experiences and explanations rather than translating Practical Anatomy, a Japanese anatomy book authored by Imada Tsukane, as is.
During the translation of Practical Anatomy, however, it is unknown what explanations, which did not exist in the original text, were added or supplemented in the Korean translation. The objective of this paper is to thoroughly compare the two books to identify the characteristics of Anatomy (1906) in further detail. Besides the bibliographic information introduced by the recently discovered copy of Anatomy, possessed by the National Hangeul Museum, this edition also contains markings. These markings seem to have been made for revisions in comparison to the source text, Practical Anatomy. This is noteworthy from the perspective of translation.

KCI후보

71930~40년대 세브란스의학전문학교 출신 교토제국대학 의학박사의 배출과 의학연구

저자 : 이현희 ( Lee Hyun-hee )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 21권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 127-161 (35 pages)

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The appearance and training of M.D. Ph.D.(s) of the Kyoto Imperial University from the Severance Medical College in the 1930s and 1940s was based on Yoon Il-sun's researching ability and the school-level researching capacity. In addition, it was closely related to the Japanese Ministry of Education and the policies of the Imperial University, such as the certification of the Severance Medical College by the Ministry of Education, the institutional completion of student selection by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the training of medical researchers through the special research course system.
Based on this institutional structure, Yoon Il-sun's disciples were able to obtain M.D. Ph.D.(s) from Kyoto Imperial University with some recognition for their research capabilities in Korea. However, the special research courses and medical assistant system, which were the study paths available at the Kyoto Imperial University, reflected the discriminatory structure of the Japanese Medical System. On the other hand, the M.D. Ph.D.(s) of the Kyoto Imperial University from Severance Medical College strengthened their research through joint research efforts, which was necessary for the development of Korean medical science at that time.

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