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수록정보
수록범위 : 2019권0호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 177
ISSE 초록집
2019권0호(2019년 05월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1Integrated Waste Management and Recycling for ELV in Japan

저자 : Ken-ichi Sasaki

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 5-14 (10 pages)

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In Japan, the Law for the Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles was enacted in 2002 and was enforced in full scale in 2005. This law greatly improved environmental conditions by obliging stakeholders, especially automobile manufacturers, to carry out appropriate roles. Specifically, the number of illegal dumping and improper storage nationwide has decreased to less than 5% before the enforcement of the law, and the recycling rate including heat utilization has been continuously exceeding 95% in recent several years. Moreover, the latest report shows the recycling rate of shredder residue is 98.2% and that of air bag is 94% in 2017.
This time, we the DOWA group, as Japan's largest private enterprise in the field of waste management/recycling, review and present the followings:
- Reasons and factors why the system prescribed by the law in Japan was steadily taken root
- Effectiveness of WtE and metal recycling using shredder residue as a raw material
- Our recent recycling efforts for hybrid/electric vehicles

2Bridging the Distance to Target

저자 : Pascal Leroy

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 16-34 (19 pages)

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All Member States of the European Union have a distance to the 65% collection target. To bridge it, all of them, in association with stakeholders, such as producer responsibility organisations in the WEEE Forum, are putting in place initiatives. This presentation will explain the collection targets, identify the causes of the distance to target and propose solutions to bridge the gap, such as supporting policy framework and voluntary initiatives.

3The Progress of Implementation of Basel Convention in China

저자 : Jinhui Li , Yingying Li

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 36-52 (17 pages)

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As one of the earliest parties and signatories, China has been actively implementing the Basel Convention in order to promote its full implementation in China. First of all, China has established management mechanism of solid waste import and export, and made efforts to promote cooperation among various ministries, actively carry out waste import and export supervision and combat illegal transboundary movement. Secondly, a complete system of laws and regulations on the control of transboundary movement and environmental management of hazardous wastes and other wastes has been established, such as Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution and Law on Promoting Circular Economy. In addition, China has initially formed a management and technical support system of hazardous waste and other waste by establishing Basel Convention Regional Centre, and the solid waste management centers at all levels. Meanwhile, China's solid waste and hazardous waste treatment industry has been established and gradually expanded.

4Automotive Industry Circular Economy: Present and Future

저자 : Hyung Chul Kim , Timothy J. Wallington

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 54-64 (11 pages)

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The Circular Economy is a sustainability paradigm where material and energy consumption are minimized by design choices that reduce material and energy inputs and outputs, and by closing material flow loops through, reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling (Geissdoerfer et al. 2017). Automobiles are the most recycled consumer product. In the U.S., approximately 86 percent of vehicle material content is recycled, reused, or used for energy recovery (Automotive Recyclers Association, 2019). In addition to end-of-life management, there are material and energy reuse and recovery opportunities throughout the entire vehicle life cycle in materials production, component manufacturing, vehicle assembly, distribution, operation, and maintenance.
We discuss how the automotive industry can employee the circular economy concept to promote sustainability during the vehicle life cycle based on Ford Motor Company's circular economy initiatives. It is important to ensure that actions to promote a circular economy lead to greater environmental benefits than alternative options. As an illustration, we present our approaches to evaluate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas savings associated with recycling solvents from painting process and reusing end-of-life lithium-ion batteries in photovoltaic applications. We discuss recycling lightweight metals, composites, and electric components including sensors, communications, information processing, and power electronics from electrified, multi-material lightweight, and automated vehicles. Challenges and opportunities are highlighted based on assessments of the breakdown of materials and components in current and future vehicles. Key principles which need to be considered as we progress towards a circular economy in the automotive industry are discussed.

5Current Status and Perspectives on Recycling of Electric Car Battery in Korea

저자 : Seung-whee Rhee

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 66-78 (13 pages)

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6Current Issues and Persprctives on Transboundary Movement of Waste inKorea

저자 : Namil Um , Jung-keun Oh , Ki-heon Kim , Seung-whee Rhee , Sun-kyoung Shin

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 81-96 (16 pages)

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Japan has made an effort to build a Sound Material-Cycle Society in the 21st century. In fact, Japan had exported various recyclable resources such as metal scrap and waste plastic to China and other countries. In order to improve international material cycles, Japanese government revised Waste Management Act and Basel Act in 2017. Revised Waste Management Act newly covers the “listed e-waste (hazardous end-of-life equipment)” that had hardly been regulated and requests the entity that store and/or dispose of them to notify to prefectures and to follow the standards. Revised Basel Act strengthened the export control for the listed e-waste, while it introduced authorization system of importers and recyclers as mitigation of import control of electronic scrap. Both revised Waste Management Act and Basel Act were enforced in 2018.
On the other hand, Chinese government announced so called “National Sword” in 2017 cracking down the import of foreign waste. Due to this China's waste import ban rather than the above revised domestic regulations, the export of mixed metal scrap (“Zappin scrap”) and waste plastic from Japan to China has dramatically declined since 2018. Various types of e-waste remained in Japan and they seem to enter small-sized e-waste recycling facilities. Most of those recycling facilities have shredders and they face shortage of shredder residue disposal channels. Our challenge of e-waste management in Japan is how to recycle value-less e-waste and to reduce residues.

8Trans-boundary Movement of Plastic Wastes in the Philippines

저자 : Arturo Mariano I. Figueroa

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 107-114 (8 pages)

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Plastic wastes regulation are covered in Philippines laws. For example, in Republic Act 9003( Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000), the processes involved such as collection, recycling, and disposal of plastic wastes is a burden to Local Government Units ( LGUs). Another law is Republic Act 6969(Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Control Act of 1990). The heart of this law is to regulate the importation, manufacture , processing, handling , storage , transportation , sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures , including the entry, transit, storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country. Under this law, the importation and trafficking of heterogenous and unsorted plastic materials is not allowed. In general, the rising business of recycling plastics in the Philippines has improved the statistics of scrap plastic importation over the last 10 years. In terms of plastic waste management in the Philippines, the country has instituted practices such as waste to energy application for residual plastic waste, controlled usage of plastic bags or bring your own Eco bags, and refill revolution - “Every bottle that is refilled will mean one less bottle that has to be produced”. However, illegal issues of trans-boundary movement of plastic in the country are experienced and are needing stronger resolution for the triumph of environmental justice, morality, and the rule of law.

9E-waste PRS in Hong Kong: How is it doing?

저자 : Shan-shan Chung

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 116-123 (8 pages)

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The first producer responsibility control scheme (PRS) on electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) was contrived in 2011 and took effect on 1st August, 2018 in Hong Kong. To enable effective regulation of the handling and recycling of e-waste, other than imposing a recycling levy on the prescribed types of e-waste, namely televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, airconditioners, computers, scanners, printers and monitors, the Hong Kong Government also took this opportunity to tighten the regulation on e-waste recyclers by licensing all legal operations. Save the exemptions, e-waste dismantling and other recycling activities without a licence is therefore illegal in Hong Kong from this point onwards. Repair of prescribed e-waste however is also exempted from the licensing requirement. E-waste repair activities however are not clearly defined in the concerned laws.
Unique features of the PRS on e-waste scheme in Hong Kong include: i) government undertakes to pay for the collection and recycling of orphan and historic e-waste; ii) free collection service of the prescribed e-waste within 3 days from the day of delivery of new prescribed e-products or placing of collection order; iii) only the government appointed e-waste recycler will be paid (from the recycling levy) for the e-waste collected and recycled; iv) government intends to ban all unsolicited import and export of prescribed e-waste. While this PRS scheme is able to ensure the proper handling and recycling of historic, orphan and low value e-waste, the cost of this assurance is borne by new e-product consumers in the form of high recycling fee (compared to those in Taiwan and Austria). Since the ban on prescribed e-waste trafficking has only been enforced for a few months, it is too early to draw any conclusion on the achievement of the ban. Yet, based on other countries' experience and the daily throughput of the ports in Hong Kong, it would be difficult to stop e-waste trafficking completely.

10Status and Issues in Transboundary Movement of Waste in Malaysia

저자 : Agamuthu P. , Mehran Bhatti

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : ISSE 초록집 2019권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 125-148 (24 pages)

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Malaysia's shift from being agricultural country towards industrialization has resulted in increase of hazardous waste generation. 417,000 tonnes of hazardous waste were generated in 1994 and it has increased by 548% in 2016 (2.7 million tonnes). Only 5.17% of hazardous waste is disposed of in secure landfill in Malaysia, whereas 34.72% of hazardous waste is either rendered inert and disposed of in sanitary landfill or recovered and/or recycled. There are a total of 18 facilities (including incineration) for treatment of hazardous waste in Malaysia. According to Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005, waste generators can only store hazardous waste for 180 days or less before final disposal at a prescribed facility. Environmental Quality Act 1974 has a designated section that requires written approval of the Director General of Environmental Quality for any import, export and transit of scheduled waste/hazardous waste. However, according to Malaysian law, it is prohibited to export hazardous waste for final disposal in foreign countries unless the technology for such hazardous waste is not available in the country. Similarly, Malaysian law only allows import of hazardous waste if the waste is required as raw material for recycling or recovery but the facilities receiving this waste must be licenced by Department of Environment Malaysia. Malaysia exported 9300 tonnes of hazardous waste to foreign facilities in Germany, Japan, South Korea, Thailand etc. in 2016. The type of hazardous waste that was exported was waste organic solvent, aluminium dross, electronic waste among others. On the other hand, 9000 tonnes of hazardous waste (Calcium Hydroxide sludge and scrap hard disk) were imported to Malaysia in 2016 from India, Singapore and Virgin Islands, United States. When it comes to bilateral agreements, Malaysia has bilateral agreement with United States for transboundary movement of hazardous waste for recovery purposes. Cases of illegal transboundary movement were also reported in 2016 which will be presented in the presentation. In addition to hazardous waste, Malaysia has become one of the biggest importer of plastic waste. Since China's ban in 2018 on plastic waste, developed countries such as United States, Japan, Britain, Belgium and others have been exporting plastic waste to Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Malaysia imported 754,000 tonnes of plastic waste in only first seven months of 2018. In consequence, several illegal plastic recycling facilities had been established. Since 2018, Malaysia has shut illegal plastic recycling facilities and is aiming to completely phase plastic waste import.

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