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한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회)> 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집

한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 update

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수록정보
수록범위 : 2015권0호(2015) |수록논문 수 : 164
한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집
2015권0호(2015년 05월) 수록논문
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Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been advocated as being a more appropriate approach to deal with waste management issues. By transferring to the producer the responsibility for handling its end-of use products, two main benefits arise: easing the municipalities' waste management burden and incentive for easy-to-recycle products. However, not all countries have adopted such principle. Product Stewardship is an approach according to which not only the producer, but also all involved in any waste streams, including governments and consumers, should assume a cooperative role in waste management. It generally implies that the producer will not be responsible for taking-back end-of-use products.
Australia, Singapore and Brazil have expressly adopted Product Stewardship in their waste policies. Another similarity: all have introduced the covenant as an instrument of implementation. However, the three countries are different at the execution level. The “Australian Packaging Covenant” counts on a back-up legislation aiming at “incentivizing” the industry to be a part of the agreement. The “Singapore Packaging Agreement” is merely voluntary, meaning that no current law in Singapore imposes any treat to those who are not signatories. Take-back schemes are not prescribed nor in the Australian nor in the Singaporean covenant. In Brazil, although the Waste Policy Law states Product Stewardship as a principle, it demands manufactures to implement take back schemes. The main instrument for that is a covenant named “Sectorial Agreement”. Paradoxically, becoming a party of such arrangement is apparently not mandatory.
Why Product Stewardship? Why the Covenant. A widely alleged justification is to grant industry flexibility to contribute to waste minimization within its capacity, avoiding unnecessary extra costs. Critics of such approach advocate that disregarding EPR from the waste policy means that the society as a whole will still bear industry externalities. The Australian, Singaporean and Brazilian experiences shows that Product Stewardship is a waste policy principle that demands extra “incentives”, legal or non-legal ones, to become effective. In a covenant system, deep transparency and independent monitoring are key issues for assessing its success. However, it seems that if any waste management crisis arises or if the waste burden to the governments become excessively high, EPR mandatory approaches are more likely to be adopted than flexible-voluntary ones such as Product Stewardship.

2Assessment of 3Rs Implementation by Local Authorities in Sri Lanka

저자 : Anurudda Karunarathna , Lakmini Samarakoon

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 2-5 (4 pages)

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Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is being considered as a serious environmental and socio-economic issue in Sri Lanka. The recent programs executed in Sri Lanka to upgrade the MSW sector and especially to implement 3Rs policy have not been assessed yet. This study evaluates the MSW management of Local Authorities (LAs) of Sri Lanka with special emphasis on resource recycling. The amount of daily waste collection was a key factor in decision making on 3Rs where rural LAs tend to continue the practice of open dumping. The middle scale cities have given priority for organic waste recycling through centralized composting while the capital and secondary larger cities still struggle with managing the final disposal sites. Thus, the immediate implementation of material and energy recycling aim at large cities seems to be an effective strategy to divert their focus on land filling to resource circular society.

3Considerations on the Application of Food Waste Disposer in S. Korea

저자 : Munsol Ju , Jae Young Kim

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 6-9 (4 pages)

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Food waste disposer has been tried again in S. Korea. We examined the background and the considerations when food waste disposer is applied in S. Korea. The first one is disposer performance and the second one is plumbing design, and the last one is the method of wastewater treatment. The most controversial issue is solid recovery rate in using food waste disposer. It is regulated as recovering more 80% of input solid or draining less 20% of input solid. With making standards on disposer performance and plumbing design, more reasonable regulations on solid utilization is necessary based on integrated assessment.

4Understanding Existing Green Practices to Achieve Sustainable Consumption: A Case of Bhopal City in India

저자 : Rama Umesh Pandey , Akhilesh Surjan , Manmohan Kapshe

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 10-14 (5 pages)

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Most of the cities in developing countries of Asia are struggling to contain and manage the increasing levels of daily household waste, being generated within their municipal limits. In India, urban population has been growing manifold and it is for the first time in the year 2011 when absolute increase in population is more in urban areas than that in rural areas. However it is interesting to note that despite this increase, the per capita generation of daily waste in urban areas has remained much lower than developed economies as well as many East-Asian countries. This has been achieved on account of various waste-recycle, reduce and reuse practices which are engraved as a routine practice in the life of Indian households since time immemorial.
This study attempts to understand this phenomenon of 'community based green practices'. The objective is to ascertain the prevailing reuse and recycle practices, which help to achieve sustainable consumption in Indian context. Field realities from the city of Bhopal (India) have been captured through detailed stakeholder surveys and focused group discussions. Qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of recycling and reuse of waste from selected key material sectors such as: paper, plastic, glass, textile, biodegradable waste and e-waste etc. is carried out to establish the contribution of people in promoting sustainable consumption. The study outcomes helped to understand existing consumption patterns of urban communities and identify green practices, which are of paramount interest to city government in policy and practice domains. Rapid economic growth is not only fueling environmental degradation but also resulting in increasing the waste volumes in India. The study also highlights the daily struggle being faced by the community at large, to keep pace with socio-economic-environmental changes which are threatening 'community based green practices' to a considerable extent.

5Trial Survey to Grasp the MSW Discharge Situation in Small Island Developing States - Case Study in Honiara City, Solomon Islands -

저자 : Misuzu Asari , Natsuko Kishimoto , Masayoshi Ogawa , George Titiulu , Makoto Tsukiji

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 15-18 (4 pages)

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Honiara is a typical city which faces the waste problem. The amount of MSW is increasing because of the increase of population and change of lifestyle. Frequency of MSW collection is irregular still in official collected areas. Also, illegal residents increasingly expand their residential area into valley and marshland, where waste is not collated. More waste was scattered on the road, river and seashore. These situations may cause pollution and insanitary environment.
As a starting point of the 3R project, a survey was conducted to grasp current situation of MSW collection. The aim is to research basic status of household waste collection point to share the result with city council and establish the suitable collection system. The method and result should be simple and inexpensive, so that normal digital camera with GPS system and other simple equipment were used in this survey. The availability of the method was also evaluated.
Utilizing GPS data and google map, the routing and points of collection are radially visualized. There are some possibilities to utilize the information. For instance, information and data could be used for proper routing.
In addition, we found geographical problems related to MSW collection from this survey. It suggests that the distance and gap of sea level between collected and uncollected area must be the big barrier.
Additionally, it seems that this method can be useful in small island developing states (SIDS) and other developing countries.

6Strength Enhancement of Soil-Cement by the Recycling of Rice Husk

저자 : Seung-deok Seo , Jae-hyuk Hyun , Ki-seok Lee

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 19-22 (4 pages)

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Soil-Cement is an outstanding paving material, as it is economic, easy to construct and environmentalfriendly due to its usage of natural soil. This paper attempts to take an in-depth study of material characteristics of soil-cement mixtures with rice husk ash which is discarded as waste to enhance the strength and durability of soil-cement. The compressive strength test of soil-cement mixtures showed the highest strength with 10% of rice husk ash added. This suggests rice husk ash has high quality component as one of pozzolanic materials.

7Municipal Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potentials in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia

저자 : Bandith Seng , Takeshi Fujiwara

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 23-26 (4 pages)

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Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Phnom Pen city is increasing as main result of population growth and economic development. Yet, waste collection service is not available throughout the city. Only some districts in the central could have accessed to the service 80-100%. Current management approach is only just about collection and disposal into the landfill; there is no such pre-treatment nor treatment facility. Waste disposal to Dangkor landfill, the in-operation dumpsite for final MSW disposal, is also relatively increased. As of July 2014, it is 53,535tons/month, or in average 1,727tons/day with annual increasing rate 9.37%. Organic (55.42%), plastic (20.75%) and textile (12.06%) are respectively shares the large portions in waste composition. Characteristically, Phnom Penh MSW is potential for compositing (54.93%) and recycling (22.29%). In recycling activities, informal sector is playing important role and in the landfill, there are 300 scavengers scavenging the valuable materials. The recycling could happen through material marketing. It could recover about 607tons/month from landfilling, or about 1.13% of total disposed waste in July 2014. Therefore, it shows that 21.16% of marketable materials have lost the values by being unrecoverable. Economically, regarding current markets the loss value could be 822 million Riel/month. The management system needs upgrading to sound more sustainable. Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) especially recycling should be introduced. Waste pre-treatment at sources is an advance. It would not only reduce the final disposal to landfill, but also generate economic benefits. However, sudden changes of the current system might result a failure whilst equipment, facility, expertise and financial resources are so challenging. Starting scale should be manageable and achievable. Preliminarily, recycling may demonstrate and the pilots should take place in such academic institutes, public and private premises prior to widening to another treatment alternatives and generation sources.

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Waste is become one of many environmental problems in Bandung, Indonesia, especially plastic waste. Every year, there is increasing trend of the need of plastic about 200.000 tons annually in the country. Taking focus of plastic bag waste, it poses real environmental impacts because of its characteristic of low degradability so it may cause flooding by clogging the drainage, polluting the ocean, and producing toxic gases when burned. The first method of 3R concept, reduce, is used in this study by implementing the provision of shopping bags so that waste can be reduced. This study aims to determine the effect of intervention on plastic bag waste reduction. There are six sites with three levels of economic differences. Intervention is given to the three sites, while others are not. Waste sampling carried out by two phases, phase I performed before intervention and phase II performed after the intervention is completed. Intervention contains provision of shopping bags and information related to plastic bags. The result, Bandung produces waste up to 2.16 litres/person/day or 0.40 kg/person/day with the average composition of the waste plastic bag is 5.66% from total waste. In detail, ccomposition of plastic bag waste in the upper class community is 7.45%, the middle class is 5.35%, and the lower class is 4.18%. Test of significance, t-test of plastic bag waste from phase I and phase II, shows that the intervention has a significant effect on plastic bag waste reduction. On average, shopping bag intervention approach successfully reducing plastic bag waste up to 35% in the study area.

9Effectiveness of Selling Smaller Unit Sizes to Prevent Food Waste Generation in One-person Households

저자 : Hajime Yamakawa , Takaaki Nakatani

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 28-31 (4 pages)

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This study focuses on food losses in single households, which have increased and are projected to further increase in Japan. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of selling smaller unit sizes of foods to prevent such waste. In order to reveal the actual situation of food losses and the evaluation of store food unit size by single households, we conducted an online survey of persons in single households in Japan. The results showed that 36% of respondents felt that the unit sizes of foods sold were too large for full consumption and the freqencies they felt so and the freqencies to discard edible components of foods had statistically significant correlation. For 4 kinds of often-used produce, 26 - 56% felt that standard store sizes were too large; where as only 3 - 4% felt a hypothetical 'single' unit size, like a quarter cabbage or one small carrot, were excessive while 46 - 51% felt those would be proper. Therefore we concluded that selling smaller sizes than usual could reduce produce waste. (178 words)

10Study on the Analysis of the Optimum Food waste Treatment Technology in Korea

저자 : Suck-hyun Jeong , Jin-do Chung , Tae-uk Byun , San Kim

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 3RINCs초록집 2015권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 32-35 (4 pages)

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More than 12,000 tons of food waste is treated by the plants and those 98 public and 154 private plants registered on the Ministry of Environment share it to recycle the resources daily1). In process of the treatment of food waste how to treat the food wastewater is the most difficult process. Though most of public treatment plants treat the food waste water by draining it to the public sewage treatment plant through the drain pipe line directly, but the private plants are to transport it to the sewage plant or fertilizer plants. These cases cause high cost. 'Cocofit' made of coconut shell and wood microchips are usually used to absorb the water content in the sludge. Vacuum dry system can treat the food waste effectively. The high salt concentration in the food waste makes hard for it to be transformed as feed, fertilizer or RDF. The nutritious organic matter treated by the vacuum dryer reactor which can evaporates food waste water at 50℃ is very useful for animal feed. The low density of concentrated water vapored by the vacuum dryer reactor can be the one as befitted of the R/O Membrane System. Among many water filtering systems this R/O system is the only way to fit the water regulation limit of drain water standard in Korea commercially.

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