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The Journal of Western History

  • : 한국서양사연구회(구 서울대학교 서양사연구회)
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1979)~62권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 408
서양사연구
62권0호(2020년 05월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1에메 세제르의 네그리튀드와 탈식민주의

저자 : 오승현 ( Seunghyun Oh )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회(구 서울대학교 서양사연구회) 간행물 : 서양사연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-46 (46 pages)

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Aime Cesaire, a French author and politician from Martinique, was one of the founders of the Negritude movement and an important postcolonial theorist. In particular, his political arguments regarding decolonization of Africa differed from the dominant approach of the time, which tended to focus on establishing an independent state. This study aims to shed light on the content and significance of Cesaire's postcolonial theory.
First, his concept of 'Negritude' served as the theoretical basis of his criticisms against Colonialism. According to Cesaire, colonialism was to be blamed for the collapse of Western liberal values and the goal of postcolonialism was to restore the humanity of the colonized people. In this vein, the ideology of Negritude sought to rediscover the agency of Black people and value of being Black and was a retaliation against any arbitrary attacks on the colonized people. Further, the notion of Negritude embraced the universal rights of men and citizens by asserting all human beings' agency.
Departmentalization (or departementalisation) and federalism, proposed by Cesaire, were political plans for decolonization and the implementation of the ideology of Negritude. Both proposals were intended to build a new political system whereby France and its former colonies would form a cooperative relationship. These proposals depart somewhat from the prevalent conception of decolonization, which equates decolonization with the establishment of an independent nation state. Therefore, it is important to examine the socio-political context within which Cesaire's proposals could gain support.
First, the popular opinion of Martinique at the time did not support the establishment of a nation state. As the Indigenous traditions and customs in Martinique had been almost annihilated by the colonizers since the 16th century, the cultural identity of the Martinique people was strongly influenced by the French colonizers. Therefore, amid the long history of colonization, an interdependent relationship took its root between Martinique and France.
Another external factor that significantly affected Cesaire's postcolonialism was the rise of American imperialism, of which Cesaire was wary, as evidenced in his essay “Discourse on Colonialism.” Cesaire's skepticism was, in part, formed by the continued dominance of the imperial powers over the former colonies even after they gained independence. Cesaire further argued that American imperialism would eventually lead to a new form of colonialism and that European countries (including France) should seek alliances with non-Whites to fend off this threat. According to Cesaire, the processes of decolonization should accompany the deconstruction of the hierarchical relationship between the colonized and the colonizer and ultimately foster coexistence between the two groups.
(Korea National University of Education / sh1512@naver.com)

KCI등재

2전간기 소련 군사전략의 특성: 유럽 주요국의 '소규모 전문직업군대' 논의를 중심으로

저자 : 이정하 ( Jeong-ha Lee )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회(구 서울대학교 서양사연구회) 간행물 : 서양사연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 47-82 (36 pages)

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This article analyses the characteristics of the Soviet military strategy in the interwar period, focusing on the discussion of 'small and professional army'. The discussion in UK, Germany, and France show the fundamentally different approaches from the Soviet Union in terms of the perception of the next war and the lessons of the last war, the Great War. Also, this article tries to figure out sociopolitical and military-technical factors influencing on each response to the post-war conditions.
Particular attention is paid to criticism of the concept of small and professional army by the Soviet military thinkers in the interwar period. Along with the review of the concept, this article attempts to make an analysis of three features of the interwar Soviet military strategy, that is, ideological aspect; total war as a next war; combined arms warfare.
(Chonnam National University / budennyi@gmail.com)

KCI등재

3식민주의적 병합과 민주주의적 분리독립: 민주적 헌정주의와 1905년 노르웨이 독립

저자 : 김인춘 ( Inchoon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회(구 서울대학교 서양사연구회) 간행물 : 서양사연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 83-127 (45 pages)

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The purpose of this article is to examine the characteristics and processes of the Norwegian path to democratic constitutionalism and full sovereignty in 1905. In 1814, Norway was forced to join in the Union between Sweden and Norway (Den svensk-norske union, 1814-1905) after the Napoleonic Wars. Fortunately, Norway quickly and legitimately adopted the Norwegian Constitution on 17 May 1814 and defended the constitution with difficulty. The constitution was founded on the principles of the sovereignty of the people and the separation of powers. During the union period, Norwegian people developed and nurtured national identity based on democratic political nationalism and liberating cultural nationalism. This liberal nationalism with the democratic and liberal constitution of 1814 led to the parliamentarism in Norway in 1884 and the peaceful and democratic dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905. This was very exceptional case in the period of colonialism and turbulent democratic transition. Norway's gradual and intrinsic progress toward democratic constitutionalism insured democratic dissolution of the union and affected the Nordic region's peace and prosperity afterward.
(Yonsei University / ickim95@yonsei.ac.kr)

KCI등재

420세기 초 영국 상선업계 '유색인' 노동자에 대한 젠더화된 인종 담론

저자 : 박은재 ( Eunjae Park )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회(구 서울대학교 서양사연구회) 간행물 : 서양사연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 129-158 (30 pages)

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This article seeks to illustrate gendered racial images laid on the 'coloured' seamen of the British merchant industry in the early twentieth century. Roughly one third of the whole workforce in the British merchant marine, non-white colonials, or immigrant labourers, were given lower pays and poorer working conditions than those for white British sailors. The racial ideology that justified their marginalization in the mercantile industry, and the British society as a whole, was expressed through and strengthened by genderspecific attributions of the colonials. On board, the idea of maritime masculinity has related skill-levels required for various jobs with manly quality of the sailor who performed the jobs. So it was natural that the roles deemed feminine - for instance catering, stewarding, and stoking - were attributed to the non-white who were despised as feminine and docile. These racial images, in turn, justified shipowners' claims that they only paid the 'coloured' workers lower wages because they did women's, i.e., menial, tasks. Off the ships, however, the existence of the 'coloured' seamen were rejected by the British society because their alleged sexuality and aggressiveness were deemed threats to the white men and the British civilizations. The 'race riots' that happened in nine port towns over the year 1919 revealed British society's fear for black masculinity - which meant superior sexual power and almost animal-like aggressiveness.
(Hallym University / eunjae.park@hallym.ac.kr)

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1연안해역에서 석유오염물질의 세균학적 분해에 관한 연구

(2006)홍길동 외 1명심리학41회 피인용

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2미국의 비트코인 규제

(2006)홍길동심리학41회 피인용

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2미국의 비트코인 규제

(2006)홍길동41회 피인용

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