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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~118권0호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 1,389
중국사연구
118권0호(2019년 02월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1황제에게 어울리는 이상적인 배우자-양당서(兩唐書) 「후비전(后妃傳)」을 통해 본 당대(唐代) 후비상(后妃像)-

저자 : 金澔 ( Kim Ho )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-26 (26 pages)

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This article explores the Ideal Spouse for the Emperor in Tang Dynasty. Eight Empresses and Consorts are related with political parts as we look closely at the records of about 30 people, on the Biographies of Empresses and Consorts (「后妃傳」) in Jiutangshu, 『舊唐書』 「后妃傳」 and Xintangshu 『新唐書』 「后妃傳」. Gaozhu's Empress Dou (高祖 竇皇后), Taizong's Empress Zhangsun and Xuxianfei (太宗 長孫皇后 & 徐賢妃) were political assistants. It was the people who get bad evaluation by participating directly in politics were WuZitian, Zhongzong's Empress Wei and Consort Shangguan (中宗 韋皇后 &上官昭容), and Suzong's Empress Zhang (肅宗 張皇后). And there was Xuanzong's Yangguifei (玄宗 楊貴妃) that was not directly involved in politics, but who brought the crisis of Tang dynasty due to her relative.
Political involvement of the Empress and Consorts were limited to the 7th Suzong among the 20 emperors of Tang dynasty. It was interesting to note that since Suzong, the description of the Biographies of Empresses and Consorts has been based on the point of view of the Confucianism. On the other hand, the Empress Dou and Zhangson, who were involved in politics but received positive evaluation as helpers, did not neglect the side as filial duty of daughter-in-law. From the point of view of the Confucianism after Daizong (代宗), they emphasized filial duty and chastity, but we can not overlook the fact that Empress Wu and Consort Shangguan acted on the relationship with paramours. In contrast, the death of Xuxianfei at the young age, and Weixianfei (韋賢妃) the death of the Mausoleum are also praised in chastity terms of Confucianism. Moreover, it was the culmination of chastity that Wuzong's Wangxianfei(武宗 王賢妃) performed burial of the living with the dead. The description of this biographies point of view, from the point of view of the Confucianism, was more evident in Court Lady Song's five sisters (尙宮 宋氏姉妹). The Song's sisters learning of Confucianism has made the appearance of the Confucian spouses.
In the end, the emperor's ideal spouse image, which the biographies intended to pass through the writings recorded in it, was a woman of Confucian virtue. In the preface of the Biographies of Empresses and Consorts in Xintangsu, it is said that the virtuous Emperor should have a woman who is not involved in the political world, besides the Emperor's Ideal Spouse who had chastity and virtue on memorial writing, said that Empress and Consorts should be quietly trapped in the harem.

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2원우당적비(元祐黨籍碑)와 경원당적비(慶元黨籍碑)의 비교 분석-남송대 공론(公論)의 확산과 독서인의 정치참여를 중심으로-

저자 : 金榮濟 ( Kim Young Jae )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 27-59 (33 pages)

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Sofar I have examined the inscription of Yuanyou dangji bei and Qingyuan dangji bei. These two stone monument were nearly same in form and purpose. While the former was seemingly focused on personnel of Anti-new policies, in fact it was the result of removal of Caijing(蔡京)'s politica opponent. The latter was the same; in the process where Hantuozhou(韓侂胄) expelled his political opponent, Zhouruyu(趙汝愚), he made Neo-Confucian people represent in the front. The influential vassal politics of Southern Song Dynasty actually originated from Caijing(蔡京) in Northern Song Huijong(徽宗) Dynasty. He took the power during long period by drawing the admonitor vassals into his side, so did the influential vassals in Southern Song Dynasty. However Caijing(蔡京) misleaded the administration with the result that Northern Song came to collapse. Because of both historical experiences and propagation of Neo-Confucian which thought much of public opinion, in Southern Song Dynasty young elite were vigorously interested in administration and resisted whenever the influential vassals arbitrarily decided administration. For this reason, unlike the former, it is considered that the latter included young collage elite's list.

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312세기(世紀) 남중국(南中國) 독서인(讀書人)의 오락과 유흥

저자 : 鄭壹敎 ( Jeong Il Gyo )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 61-85 (25 pages)

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In the era of Song dynasty, the agricultural productivity had been increased and the handicraft industry had been developed. As a result, the fundamental terms and conditions to develop cities and urbiculture were fulfilled. The walls to separate the section of city[坊墻] that hindered the growth of city were disappeared. Also the system to divide the market of city[坊市] was abolished. This led to the free commercial activity. In the record of the essay about Kaifeng[開封] and Hangzhou[杭州], the former capital cities of Song dynasty, there are on some records of the entertainments of the two cities. The entertainment's center was "Washe Theater[瓦舍勾欄]" in the era of Song dynasty. It seems that "Washe" had already become the popular amusements from Song dynasty.
The readers of Song dynasty had played a very important role in the consumer market of culture and entertainment and they were the respected authority of them. The feature of the literati's class in Song dynasty is known from their financial abilities and the character depicted in novel. In the era of Song dynasty, the economy had been developed and the literati had good social standing. The terms and conditions to develop culture were prepared economically and socially. Based on it, the literati had brought the time of unprecedented cultural prosperity.
These terms and conditions to develop culture and social differentiation and development are closely linked. And those became the foundation for literature and cultural industry.
Unlike the past, the Song government held the Chinese Imperial examination under the new system that standardized and diversified the exam. This led increasing the number of Jinshi[進士] who passed the test, the number of Jinshi even reached up to 700. People came to regard Jinshi as entering public service. A person who won the first place in the exam attained the greatest honor. The rapid development of literati rank caused increasing the number and improving the socioeconomic status of literati. Based on this, literati rank became the leading consumer of culture and entertainment. Also they had largely affected the culture and entertainment of Song dynasty.
In terms of the contribution to the culture and entertainment of Song dynasty by the literati, the material prosperity stimulated their passion for creativity. Also the economic development provided the material of literature and helped spread the literature. Thus, the literati and the culture and entertainment market of Song dynasty interacted on each other and contributed to develop of each other.

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This article follows the attitudes and positions taken by Chinese educators of the early 1930s in response to the 'Sinicization of education' agenda as proposed by the Study Mission for Education in China ('Study Mission' henceforth) sent by the League of Nations. While the immediate aim for doing so is to attempt a multi-layered restructuring of the discourse among Chinese educators regarding the Sinicization of education, which had emerged as a hot issue during the early 1930s, the ultimate purpose is to reveal the ideological landscape among educators in the 1930s.
Pointing out that education in China was excessively foreignized, the Study Mission recommended that China should establish an independent and autonomous education system, and that this would require authorities to focus on traditional Chinese culture while also referring to the European experience. Contrary to the findings of previous studies, the responses among Chinese educators regarding the 'Sinicization of education' proposed by the Study Mission were not simply delineated into arguments for and against. At least three positions were found to have been taken. First, some enthusiastically agreed with the Sinicization agenda of the Study Mission. The second position, from an anti-traditionalist perspective, was critical of Sinicization. The third position, from the perspective of Chinese society, was critically supportive of Sinicization. Such diverse reactions reflected the disparity in the attitudes and positions among intellectuals regarding the nature of the crisis in Chinese education, as well as those regarding traditional culture, educational models, and Chinese society. These responses also represented the views regarding Sinicization held by intellectuals with culturally conservative, liberal, and socialist tendencies.

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5양명학(陽明學)과 기타 학설 간의 경쟁-명사 당순지의 양명학 수용을 사례로-

저자 : 홍꿔치앙

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 87-101 (15 pages)

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명(明) 가정(嘉靖) 시기 이학(理學)은 각종 다양한 학설과 상호 경쟁하는 형국이었다. 이러한 경쟁이 치열하던 상황에 직면하여 각급 학설을 개창하여 이끌던 사람들은 우수한 사대부와 문생들을 자신들의 학설 유파로 받아들여서 문호를 확장하고 학설의 영향력을 증강시키기를 희망했다.
당순지(唐順之)는 당시 명성을 크게 떨치고 있던 인물이었으므로 각 학문 집단 차원에서 쟁취하기 위해 노력하는 대상이었다. 여남(呂柟)ㆍ모헌(毛憲)ㆍ서문(徐問) 등은 모두 당순지가 자신들의 이론을 받아들이기를 희망하였다. 그러나 당시 당순지는 이학에 흥취를 느끼지 못하고 있었다.
당순지가 이학에 흥미를 가지게 된 후 위교(魏校)와 왕기(王畿) 등이 다시 경쟁적으로 그를 문하에 끌어들이고자 하였다. 비교 검토의 과정을 충분히 거친 뒤 당순지는 마침내 스스로 양명학을 자신의 학술로 선택하게 되었다. 당순지의 이와 같은 명사와 제자들을 받아들인 그들은 자신들의 학술적 영향력을 확대할 수 있었다. 이를 통해 우리는 학설을 개창한 명사들과 제자들과의 관계를 잘 알 수 있다.
학자들은 역시 자신의 흥취와 심신의 요구에 근거하여 주로 선택한다. 양명학이 당순지의 이와 같은 우수한 신뢰 집단을 끌어들이는 노력을 벌이게 된 것은 당시 각종 학설이 상호 경쟁하고 있던 상황이 가장 중요한 배경이 되어 나타난 상황이었다.


There were many competing Neo-Confucianism learnings between 1520s and 1540s. Each one of these learning's masters wanted to attract brilliant young intellectuals to become his disciple, in order to expand the influence of his learning. Tang Shunzhi 唐順之had enjoyed a high reputation at that time. Therefore, those masters such as Lv Nan,呂柟 Mao Xian毛憲 and Xu Wen徐問 wished Tang could accept their own learning. It was not successful because of Tang's lack of interest in Neo-Confucianism. When Tang began to research Neo-Confucianism, Wang Ji 王畿and Wei Xiao魏校 sermonized Tang their own learning through various ways. After comparison, Tang finally chose to accept the Yangming Learning 陽明學. Through this case, we can review the relationship between learning masters and their listeners. Yangming School 陽明學派attracted many excellent followers like Tang Shunzhi, which was one of the important reasons why it stood out in the competition among various theories at that time.

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6'국(國)'字의 문화사: 근대 중국의 국호(國號)와 속자(俗字)―태평천국(太平天囯)과 중화민국(中華民囻)을 중심으로-

저자 : 都重萬 ( Toh Joong Man )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 103-147 (45 pages)

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The most striking feature of modern China is that its legitimacy fell away, and its authority was replaced by heresy instead. The purpose of this article is to grasp the cultural history that existing orthography pertinent to the name of the country was challenged by simplified Chinese characters under the great premise of so called 'Downfall of Legitimacy and Revival of Heresy.'
The name of a country as well as a national flag or anthem does conspicuously stand for a country's dignity and identity. However, interestingly, there was quite a huge scramble concerning the name of a country between the existing orthography and simplified Chinese characters in modern China. Due to the scramble, the majestic title came to a ferocious battlefield where heresy jostled against legitimacy.
The scramble between Taiping Heavenly Kingdom(太平天國) and Republic of China(中華民國), which had been founded by two representative revolutionary forces, was especially the most fierce battlefield where orthography of mainstream party was pitted against simplified Chinese characters of non-mainstream party. The letter, in particular, 'guo(國)' was on the firing line in the chaos, which is well reflected in its simplified Chinese characters.
The present study investigated the power of the letter and the challenge of the simplified Chinese characters as a pre-task. After examining the simplified letters, 'guo(囯)' in 太平天囯, another one, 'guo(囻)' in 中華民囻 was covered.
The result of the study has its significance in that it reveals a new page of a come-from-behind win about the 'Downfall of Legitimacy and Revival of Heresy' that is vividly engraved in the relationship between the two names of a country and their simplified Chinese characters in modern China.

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7천주교도(天主敎徒) 마상백(馬相伯)의 종교(宗敎)ㆍ정치사상(政治思想)

저자 : 崔炳旭 ( Choi Byung Wook )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 149-182 (34 pages)

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This research studies the religious and political idea of Maxiangbo, a Chinese Catholic as well as a priest of the Society of Jesus in his early days, in terms of sacred vs. secular and China vs. the West. Three areas will be reviewed in this research. First, the religious thought Maxiangbo had by the time when he returned to Church after he had left the Society of Jesus and was involved in politics was studied. Second, his political idea represented in his published writings as a politician who was in various political realms in his entire life and the theological background behind the thought were reviewed. Third, in the conclusion, his religious and political ideas that demonstrated both the element of sacredness vs. worldliness, and China vs. the West were evaluated.
Maxiangbo, who lived almost a century from 1840, the year he was born, to 1939, the year he died, lived his whole life with the modern and contemporary history of China. Throughout the lifetime, he considered China while learning about the West, concerned the interest of his nation while following the Catholic Church, managed the government of the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China while having the faith in Roman Catholicism, was a Jiangnan nobleman in the traditional era while being a Catholic priest influenced by the western philosophy, and worried Chinese people in crisis while saving individual souls, which is ultimately induced the idea of sacred vs. secular and China vs. the West.

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8전입 흉노족의 효도 관념의 전환과 그 원인

저자 : 펑스밍

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 211-231 (21 pages)

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최근 학계에서는 흉노족(匈奴族)의 효도(孝道) 관념이 어떻게 변천하고 있는지에 관한 연구가 성과는 많으면서도 다양하지만, 여전히 체계적으로 이 문제에 대하여 검토를 시도한 논고는 아직 없다.
본고는 사료 고찰을 통하여 흉노의 효도 관념이 변화하게 되는 정황에 대하여 개관하면서 정리하고자 하였다.
남흉노가 투항하여 남쪽으로 내려 온 이후, 정치 경제적 환경의 변화에 따라 대규모적인 한화(漢化)의 과정을 시작하였다. 유가(儒家) 문화의 영향하에 흉노족 원래의 효도는 점차 변화하기 시작하였는데, 그 대표적인 사례로는 수계혼(收繼婚)이라는 오래된 풍습이 점차 시의에 합당하지 않다고 인식되기 시작하였으며, 피휘제(避諱制)의 시행, 귀족계층의 『효경(孝經)』 중시와 준수 사상, 한족 예제(禮制)를 모방한 종묘제사의 거행 등이 대표적이다.
이러한 상황은 생산 양식의 목축업으로부터 농업으로 전환, 북방에서 유가 문화의 진흥, 통치 계층의 적극적인 권장 등의 원인으로부터 비롯되었다.
흉노족의 효도 관념과 관행은 원래의 종교 윤리로부터 점차 혈연적 가정 윤리와 사회 도덕 규범으로 전환 변화하게 되었다. 이로 말미암아 도덕적 문화적 소양이 제고되었으며, 이는 한족과 흉노족간의 민족융합의 진전에도 유리한 기여를 하였다.


At present, most of the relevant studies on the evolution of the concept of filial piety of Xiongnu in academic circles are scattered achievements, and no articles have systematically explored this issue. This paper hopes to make a brief combing and textual research on the transformation of the concept of filial piety of Xiongnu through historical materials. With the change of the political and economic environment, the southern Xiongnu began a large-scale process of chinesization. Under the influence of Confucian culture, the original filial piety of Xiongnu gradually changed, which was mainly manifested as: the old custom of remarriage was gradually regarded as inappropriateㆍ implementation of taboo systemㆍthe noble class respected and practiced the thought of Filial Pietyㆍancestor sacrifice by imitating the Han ritual system. This kind of situation came from the reasons such as the transformation of production mode from animal husbandry to agricultureㆍthe revitalization of Confucian culture in the north, and the active promotion of the ruling class. The filial piety of Xiongnu gradually changed from the original religious ethics of piety to the family ethics of kinship and social moral norms, which brought about the improvement of moral and cultural quality and was conducive to accelerating the process of the national integration of the Han and Xiongnu.

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9청화간(淸華簡) 「주공지금무(周公之琴舞)」 연구 술략

저자 : 저우종치앙

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 233-239 (7 pages)

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청화간(淸華簡) 「주공지금무(周公之琴舞)」는 공개된 이래 그 내용의 희소성과 중요성으로 인해 학계의 열렬한 토론을 불러 일으켰다.
본고는 淸華簡 「周公之琴舞」에 대한 최근 수년 동안의 연구 성과를 정리하였다. 특히 그 동안의 연구 성과를 '구조의 완정성(完整性) 여부', '시간과 저자', '텍스트의 성격', '『시경』과의 관련성'으로 구분 정리하였다. 아울러 관련된 문제들에 대한 개인적인 견해도 제시하면서 앞으로의 청화간 연구에 일정한 기여를 하고자 하였다.


淸華簡「周公之琴舞」自2012年12月公布以來, 因其內容稀見、重要, 引發了學界熱烈的討論, 見仁見智, 各有所得, 在學者們的共同努力下, 對它的硏究愈益趨向細致、深入. 在本文中, 筆者將對「周公之琴舞」幾年來的硏究歷程試做一次梳理, 幷就相關問題提出個人見解. 除簡文的釋讀與考證之外, 學者們對「周公之琴舞」的硏究, 大致可以集中到以下幾個問題:

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10『명공서판청명집(名公書判淸明集)』 권삼(卷三), 부역문(賦役門) (1)

저자 : 朴敍眞 , 任大熙

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 118권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 241-268 (28 pages)

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1연안해역에서 석유오염물질의 세균학적 분해에 관한 연구

(2006)홍길동 외 1명심리학41회 피인용

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