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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~130권0호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 1,513
중국사연구
130권0호(2021년 02월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1당률(唐律)을 통해 본 당대(唐代) 면죄형(免罪型) 자수(自首)의 성립조건(成立條件)에 관한 일고찰(一考察)

저자 : 朴敍眞 ( Park Seo Jin )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-35 (35 pages)

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The surrender system provided criminals with an opportunity to surrender and to reap the legal benefits, while it functioned as an institutional device for the authorities that could reduce the cost, manpower required for criminal investigations. in this article, the general principles of surrender in the Tang Dynasty, or the establishment conditions of the Exoneration Type Surrender which exonerated one's offense if one surrendered as per the establishment conditions, and their meanings were analyzed. In addition, “Buzaizishouzhili(不在自首之例)”, which is not validated as an Exoneration Type Surrender even when the establishment conditions of the Exoneration Type Surrender are fulfilled, was reviewed.
A noteworthy point from the Tang Code's surrender system is the general principle and establishment condition which state that when one surrenders oneself before one's crime is exposed, one's offense is exonerated. This article defined surrendering when one's offense has not been exposed in order to get exonerated as Exoneration Type Surrender.
The meaning of the Tang Dynasty surrender system's general principle law: "If one has committed an offense, but surrenders before getting exposed, the offense will be exonerated" explains the broad principle, which defines the idea that surrendering when one's offense has not been exposed should be prioritized. The connotation of the underlying meaning that the offense will only be exonerated if one surrenders and at the same time fulfills the various establishment conditions after committing an offense was examined.
It is the opinion of the author that the term “Budechengshou(不得成首)” does not simply mean that surrender cannot be validated at all. Rather, it needs to be understood that the establishment conditions for surrender, which can validate the Exoneration Type Surrender resulting in the exoneration of an offense, are not fulfilled.
In order for a surrender to validate the exoneration of punishment, there are conditions to be met. Firstly, one needs to be in the state of before one's offense is exposed. Secondly, one should surrender at the jurisdictional site to the authorities. Thirdly, “Zishoubushizui(自首不實罪)” means that one has surrendered but the offense is insufficient and “Zishoubujinzui(自首不盡罪)” which are classified as false statements, should not be made upon testifying. Furthermore, there are instances where the Exoneration Type Surrender cannot be validated even when all the conditions that fulfill Exoneration Type Surrender have been met. The Tang Code regulates this form of offense as “Buzaizishouzhili”. “Buzaizishouzhili” corresponds to the type of offense not included in the introductory remarks of the surrender.
One should note that the Tang Dynasty's surrender system exonerates one's offense as long as one has surrendered and fulfills the establishment conditions. Furthermore, based on the clause of the exoneration surrender, it can be seen that the grounds for reduction could be very widely applied even if the offense could not be exonerated.

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2배정유(裵庭裕)의 『동관주기(東觀奏記)』에 대한 사료적 검토와 역주(譯註)

저자 : 류준형 ( Ryu Junhyoung )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 37-89 (53 pages)

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Bae Jung-yu(Pei Ting-yu) participated in the compilation of the Annals of Emperor Seonjong(Xuanzong) at the order of the contemporary Emperor, but failed to complete the mission amid the chaotic social situation at the time.
Dong gwan ju gi(Dong guan zou ji) was presented with the aim of supplementing the situation in which the actual records were absent and preparing records for future generations. Dong gwan ju gi describes the public year of Emperor Seonjong's reign called as Dae jong(Da zhong). The short-term characteristics of Dong gwan ju gi provide a very important basis for confirming historical facts of Dae jong period. Along with the fact that Bae Jung-yu participated in the compilation of the Annals, the condition that he personally spent his childhood with the Da jong period in person and experienced the period further enhances the historical credibility of Dong gwan ju gi. In addition, Dong gwan ju gi doubles the historical value in terms of Da jong period's annual description. As the fact that Emperor Seonjong was also considered a 'Junior Emperor Tae jong(Tai zong)' in later generations suggests, his reign was a time of new changes and revival of Tang dynasty. Although the reign of Emperor Seonjong did not create a period of complete revival, it showed the possibility of anticipating the revival of the dynasty in the historical development leading to the collapse of the dynasty. The history of Tang dynasty contained in Dong gwan ju gi has more than just one dynasty's history.
The inverse of Dong gwan ju gi clearly shows this kind of historical value. It covers the entire reign of Emperor Seonjong from the first year of Dae jong period to the 13th year of Dae jong and also delivers historical facts that are not recorded in other sources. For example, the activities of Emperor Seonjong's birth mother, empress dowager Jung(Zheng) were vividly shown, and specific responsibilities were clearly stated in relation to the cause of death of empress dowager Gwak(Guo)'s death. It not only recorded the details of Lee gak(Li que)'s life, but also created the origin of the literary use of Golden Lotus candle(Jin lian hua zhu). In addition, the institutional operation, such as the preparation of “Deng gwa myung ki(Deng ke ming ji)”, is shown in detail to help understand the relevant system. Dong gwan ju gi VolumeⅠ alone clearly shows the historical characteristics and values of Dong gwan ju gi. The subsequent reverse of VolumeⅡ and Ⅲ will enable the complete implementation of the history contained in Dong gwan ju gi.

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3금단남종(金丹南宗)의 신유학(新儒學) 흡수와 통합 - 장백단(張伯端)과 백옥섬(白玉蟾)을 중심으로

저자 : 리위융 ( Li Yuyong ) , 자오자치 ( Zhao Jiaqi )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 91-109 (19 pages)

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宋代 新儒學의 발흥은 중국 전통 사상 및 문화의 기본적인 발전 방향, 즉 新儒學이 주도하는 가운데 佛敎와 道敎가 양 날개로 작용하는 문화 발전 구조를 확립시켰다. 이러한 구조는 佛敎와 道敎가 서로 경쟁하면서 新儒學이 스스로에게 끼치는 영향에 대해 각별한 관심을 기울이도록 강제하였다.
그런 점에서 金丹 南宗의 주요 인물인 張伯端, 白玉蟾 등은 자신들의 새로운 도교 이론 체계를 구축하고 정비하면서 전통 유학과 신유학을 흡수·통합하는데 각별한 관심을 기울였다. 그들은 시대정신을 예리하게 파악하여, 儒·佛·道 삼교의 융통(融通)을 강력하게 주창하였다. 또한 新儒學을 道敎에 수용하여 “性命雙修”의 핵심적인 차원에 心性論을 원용하고 이를 세밀하게 규명함으로써, 心性論을 바탕으로 金丹 사상을 완연히 일신하였다. 이를 통해 道敎 內丹 수련의 경지와 兩宋시기 道敎 철학의 이론적 질을 크게 높였다.


The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in the Song Dynasty, basically laid down the direction of the development of traditional Chinese thought and culture after the Song Dynasty, A cultural development pattern with Neo-Confucianism as the main guide with Buddhism and Taoism as the two wings. The objective reality of this pattern forced the two Buddhists and Taoists to pay extra attention to the influence of Neo-Confucianism on themselves while competing with each other. In this respect, the main representatives of the Southern Sect of Jindan, such as Zhang Boduan and Bai Yuchan, paid special attention to absorbing and integrating traditional Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism when constructing and perfecting their own theoretical system of New Taoism. They keenly grasped the spirit of the times, vigorously advocated the integration of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and helped the new Confucianism to enter Taoism, putting the theory of mindfulness at the core level of "dual cultivation of life" and elaborating it in detail, making the Jindan thought constructed on the basis of the theory of mindfulness new, greatly enhancing the realm of Taoist Nei Dan cultivation and the theoretical quality of Taoist philosophy in the two Song dynasties.

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4명말(明末) 양호(兩湖)지역 기후변동과 역병(疫病)

저자 : 金賢善

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 111-153 (43 pages)

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2019年12月, 湖北省武漢市發生a新型冠狀病毒肺炎, 中國當局事後緊急封鎖a病毒發源地湖北省武漢市. 但是, 新型冠狀病毒肺炎越過亞洲擴散到美國和歐洲, 感染者和死亡者正在迅速增加. 從這個角度來看, 考察湖北地區的傳染病歷史具有十分重要的意義. 因此本文對明代兩湖地區的疫病進行a調查, 並分析a時間和空間分布. 然後以自然災害為中心, 追蹤疫病流行的原因. 並探討a明末寒冷幹燥的氣候對疫病產生的影響.
明代兩湖地區疫病十分頻繁. 明代兩湖疫病的時間分布狀況與趨勢呈現出範圍廣、影響大的特點, 主要集中在1450、1580、1640. 1580年代、1640年代, 疫病主要是由於連續多年的旱災導致的. 壹遇旱災, 米麥不收, 引發饑荒, 災民難以維持生計, 四處覓食, 以草根、野菜、樹皮、樹葉勉強維持生命, 甚至出現“人相食”、“死者枕籍”的悲慘現狀. 旱災對疫病的影響作用主要是間接性的, 即通過造成“饑荒”和降低人口免疫力使得疫災更容易發生. 災民營養不良、體質羸弱、抵抗疾病能力下降, 這種情況下, 特別容易感染病毒這樣的寄生物, 可能有時會削弱人們的體力和忍耐力, 當嚴重的傷害Ⅳ災難擾亂a宿體的生理平衡時, 輕微的感染也可能引發致命的並發癥.
當時兩湖地區旱災之嚴重及疫病由旱災導致不僅僅是兩湖地區的特點. 發生全省性和大範圍的旱災, 其範圍之廣、程度之嚴重是觸目驚心的. 明萬歷十六年至十八年(1588~1590), 江淮流域發生特大旱災, 並伴生有大範圍的疫病和蝗災, 以吳、滬、浙、皖、贛、湘、鄂等七省(市)最為嚴重. 崇禎元年至崇禎十四年(1628~1641)之間, 中國西北、華北、華中、華東16個省發生特大旱災, 這是近500年來持續時間最長、範圍最廣、災情最重的壹次旱災. 此次旱災造成a“赤地千裏, 江河斷流, 井泉涸竭, 禾苗幹枯, 顆粒無收”的慘狀. 可以看出旱災與蝗災導致a嚴重的疫病.
這是因為, 明末處於“小冰期”的寒冷時段. 地球表面的平均溫度每下降3℃的話, 大氣中的水分便會減少約20%, 進而導致嚴重旱災, 明代長期寒冷的氣候對降水產生a重要的影響, 致使旱澇災害分布呈現出明顯的不平衡性, 進而引發連鎖反應, 也引起其他災害的頻繁發生. 明末兩湖地區在“小冰期”影響下, 氣候變寒冷幹燥, 旱災頻發, 從而發生嚴重疫病.
另外, 還試圖通過調查中國發生的疫病, 揭開在兩湖地區流行的疫病病種. 1640年代鼠疫(bubonic plague)猖獗於華北地區, 隨後擴散至河北、河南、山東, 甚至江南地區. 根據疫病死亡率及疫死對象、鼠群的移動及死亡、氣候與鼠蚤關系、李自成與張獻忠起義的移動徑D等來推斷, 在兩湖平丘地區流行的疫災很有可能是鼠疫.
最後本文探討a小冰期氣候對鼠疫流行的影響. 氣候變化及生態環境變化不僅影響宿主的感受, 而對媒介的生長和繁殖也非常重要. 明末寒冷幹燥的氣候誘發嚙齒類動物的移動Ⅳ為鼠蚤的產卵和繁殖提供a適宜的環境, 促進a鼠疫的流行.

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They pushed ahead a modern reform movement to overcome the shock of the defeat in Sino-Japanese War and the limit of self-strengthening movement in China from June 11th to September 21st in 1898. Emperor Guangxi actively promoted the institutional reform, accepting the advises of reformist politicians like Kang Yuwei. However, the 1898 institutional reform movement faced a critical frustration by anti -reform reaction of the conservative. Consequently some reformists figures were arrested, with Emperor Guangxi deprived of the political power.
An analysis of the news articles reported in the Korean newspapers for 5 months after June of 1898 when this drastic changes happened in china showed us that though the number of articles concerning Ch'ing China was not so few, the understanding of the Chinese institutional modernization and reform movement was very shallow and superficial. Most of the articles in the Korean papers dealing with the political situation of Ch'ing China was focusing on the relationship between Ch'ing China and other powers, especially the relationship with England, Japan, Russia, France and America. Besides this they minutely introduced the domestical incidents or criminal cases in which Koreans and Chinese were involved in Korea.
Even the articles treating the modernization reform of Ch'ing China was mainly concentrated on the issues such as the extension of the new army, the dispatch of military students to foreign powers, the expansion of modern educational institutes, and the encouragement of modern industries like railroad and trade, while their understanding about the political and institutional reforms were not accurate nor abundant enough. They lacked a concrete recognition and consciousness of these kinds of issues.
However, it is noteworthy and meaningful that the articles focused on the instructions for the national preservation and development of Daehan Empire, which could be learned from the Chinese experience of exigency and reform policy. This indicates that the press of Korea was relatively taking a good charge of its role and function in enlightening people. Its historical significance can be found in this perspective.

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6관습적 권리에서 “물권법정(物權法定)”주의로─토지 재산 확권 제도의 근대적 변화 연구

저자 : 양샤오 ( Yang Xiao )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 205-235 (31 pages)

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전통에서 현대에 이르기까지 토지 권리는 항상 재산 권리의 핵심으로 존재해 왔다. 전통적인 토지 재산 정의권은 어느 정도 전통 법률의 영향을 받지만 친척이나 이웃과 같은 혈연과 지연의 관습과 분리될 수 없다. 전통적인 습관은 깊이 뿌리를 두고 있으며 전통과 현대에 남아있다.
중화 민국 시대에 입법자는 서구 법률 모델의 영향을 받아 “물권법정(物權法定)”, “일물일권(一物一權)”이라는 법적 원칙을 고수했다. 법률 전문가들은 관습에 깊은 영향을 받는 전통적인 토지 권리를 변화시키기 위해 노력했다. 개조 방식은 일부 습관의 자연스러운 효과를 인정하지 못한다는 것이다.
그렇게 만들어진 토지 확권 제도는 하늘에 걸려 있을 뿐 실제로는 좋은 결과를 내지 못하고 있다. 전통적인 거래 습관과 국내 법률 사이의 얽힌 갈등 가운데 재산권 확인의 법적 표현과 토지 권리의 실태에서 이론과 실천의 차이가 나타났다. 이런 편차는 법률 전문가의 개인적 소양, 입법과 사법 가치의 주관적 방향과 관련이 있다. 또한 객관적이고 복잡한 사회적 현실과 밀접한 관련도 존재한다.


From tradition to modern times, land rights have always been the core of property rights. Traditional land rights, such as land property definition rights, cannot be separated from the local customs of bloodlines such as relatives and geopolies. The traditional customs are deeply rooted and remain in the tradition and modern times. During the period of the Republic of China, by the influence of the western legal model, legislators insisted on the legal principles of "legal property" and" one thing and one right". The legal system of land and property formulated by them is high in the air, which has not produced a good effect in practice. In modern social practice, there are still heavy traditional trading habits. In the intertwined conflict between habits and nation al laws, the legal expression of property right deviates from the actual state of land rights. it is closely related to the personal quality of legal experts at the subjective level, the legislative and judicial value orientation, the penetration of political factors, as well as the objective and complex social reality, the confusion of legislative bodies, and the lack of legislative technology.

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In this paper, the elements of “international cooperation” involved in relief work for 'the Great Flood Disaster in 1931' of 'the National Flood Relief Commission(NFRC)' were examined in terms of staffing and funding. In terms of personnel organization, a large number of foreign experts participated in the NFRC. Not only quantitatively but also qualitatively, it played a very important role at every strategic point. “International cooperation” in the composition of human resources has become a foundation for the NFRC to promote modern changes in the relief system and methods of relief.
Regarding the financial resources, there was no other way in China to find the necessary resources for the relief of flood damage, so it was more and more desperate to find a breakthrough in international cooperation. Finally, the main financial resources consisted of “American Wheat Loan” (58.9%), “Special Surtax of Customs” (25.2%), and “Relief Fund for Flood Victims” (13.3%).
“American Wheat Loan” is a in-kind foreign debt, which was negotiated by the Chinese government and the US government for about a month or so. It is a matter of course that the source of financial resources is abroad. “Special Surtax of Customs” is also taxed on foreign imported goods, and in reality, it can be collected only with the implicit consent (cooperation) of the foreign powers, and the source is also deeply related to the abroad. “Fund raising” was obtained from overseas through “international cooperation”, as donations from Overseas Chinese made up 21.9%, and support from foreign governments and private sectors accounted for 18.3%.
Therefore, the total amount of financial resources procured from abroad through “international cooperation” exceeds 90% of the total. Without “international cooperation,” the NFRC could not have financed it, and the response of the Chinese government would have been extremely limited, and it would not have been able to find a new relief system or methods.
The reason why “international cooperation” was able to become active was also due to the high international interest in the “Great Flood in 1931.” The appeals of the Chinese government and private organizations contributed to this, as well as detailed reports from foreign media. In addition, the 'international cooperation network', which was normally operated, also helped.
Of course, it wasn't the first time that international aid was made to save China's disaster. There has been 'international cooperation' since quite early on, and we can see the 'international cooperation' of 1931 as the Nanjing Nationalist Government has aggregated and maximized the existing flow. Also, this 'international cooperation' was not one-sided. In another aspect, however, the fact that the above-mentioned concentration of overseas financing well shows the weakness of China's finances at the time. In other words, it shows one aspect of 'structured external dependence.'

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8장정불(蔣廷黻) 『중국근대사(中國近代史)』(1938)의 재검토

저자 : 金世昊 ( Kim Saiho )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 289-330 (42 pages)

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This paper examines the perspectives, narratives, and arguments in the Chinese Modern History(1938) by Jiang Tingfu(1896-1965), a Chinese historian and diplomat. By doing so, I would like to explore problems such as how this book, which has many limitations, can be read from the perspective of today and what this book can mean if it is still meaningful today. This book was written in a specific political situation as a high-ranking bureaucrat within the Nanjing Nationalist Government right after the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. Containing a clear perspective and message, and thus very controversial, this book, although it drew much attention since its publication, has been virtually forgotten in mainland China since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. However after Post Mao China, this book has been reevaluated in the process of seeking the possibility of a new historical interpretation to more adequately explain the changed reality along with the decline of the socialist revolutionary ideology and the rise of China as s G2 superpower. This article was developed in the manner of a detailed review of Jiang Tingfu's book, and the narrative structure of his book was reviewed in three aspects: modernization, nationalism, and literati culture. As a result, it can be seen that this book provides a wealth of thought in the arena of today's history education and in relation to narrative strategies that drive readers' perception of history. By relying on his problem consciousness and perspective raised by this book, we can use it as an opportunity to newly reflect on the old issues of the study of modern Chinese history.

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9청대「도찰원칙례(都察院則例)」와 「흠정태규(欽定台規)」의 관계 분석

저자 : 왕빈퉁 ( Wang Bintong )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 331-352 (22 pages)

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「都察院則例」와 「欽定台規」는 청나라 건륭 시기의 두 가지 중요한 감찰법이다. 그 중 「都察院則例」는 「欽定大清會典」의 기반으로, 공식적으로 반포한 법전은 아니다. 「欽定台規」가 공식적인 감찰법전이다. 양 법전은 '총칙-세칙'의 관계가 아니다. 건륭 39년 이후 「都察院則例」는 더 이상 갱신되지 않았고, 「欽定台規」는 감찰기관의 유일한 중앙집권적이고, 체계적이며, 온전한 감찰 법전이 되었다.


Du Cha Yuan Ze Li and Qing Ding Tai Gui were two important supervisory laws enacted by Qianlong Dynasty in Qing Dynasty. Du Cha Yuan Ze Li is the foundation of the Qin Ding Da Qing Hui Dian Ze Li, not the formal legal text. Qing Ding Tai Gui is a real supervision code. They are not the corresponding relationship between general principles and specific principles. After the 39th year of Emperor Qianlong's reign, Du Cha Yuan Ze Li was no longer renewed, and Qing Ding Tai Gui became the only centralized, systematic and complete written code of the supervisory organ.

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10“옛 것과 새 것을 결합하여 활용한다(新舊相參為用)”:장건의 법률현대화 사상에 대한 예비조사

저자 : 서원보 ( She Wenbo )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 130권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 353-368 (16 pages)

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“옛 것과 새 것을 결합하여 활용한다(新舊相參為用)”는 변법이념은 張謇의 법률 현대화 사상에서 '회통중서(會通中西)' 관점을 구체적으로 드러낸 것이다. 즉, 과거와 현재의 차원에서 張謇은 “옛 것으로부터 새로운 것을 얻고, 현재를 열기 위해 과거를 되돌아보자(由舊而新, 返古開今)”고 주장하였다.
이를 위해 법률 현대화 과정에서 중국의 전통을 탐구하여 중국 고유의 제도와 사상, 문화자원 등을 충분히 발굴함으로써, 예부터 있던 고유 법제의 자기 혁신을 추동하고자 하였다. 중국과 서양의 차원에서 張謇은 “새 것으로 옛 것의 질을 높이고, 서양의 것을 녹여 중국에 활용하자(以新濟舊, 融西匯中)”고 주장하면서, 서방의 민주·공화 제도를 중국 본토에 접목하고, 중국 고유의 법적·정치적 언어로 서양의 법치정신을 해석하여 중국 법률의 현대화를 추진하고자 하였다.
시·공간적 배경으로 인해 張謇은 서양 학문의 실용성과 효능성에 대한 약간의 열망은 품고 있었지만, 결점이 장점을 가릴 수는 없었다.


The reform idea of combining the old with the new is the concrete manifestation of the concept of harmonizing Chinese and Western in Zhang Jian's thought of legal modernization. Namely, in the dimension of ancient and modern times, Zhang Jian advocated achieving the new from the old, returning to the ancient to open the present, aiming to promote the return to tradition in the process of legal modernization, fully explore the inherent system, ideology and cultural resources of the country, and make the best of the situation to promote the self-renewal of the old legal system to a certain extent. In the dimension of the east and the west, Zhang Jian proposed enriching the old with the new and bringing the west into the east, aiming at grafting the democratic and republican systems of the west to the mainland of China, interpreting the western spirit of rule of law with the inherent legal and political discourse system of China, so as to promote the modernization of Chinese law. Due to the specific time and space background, Zhang Jian held some desire for practicality and efficiency for Western learning, but the flaws did not outweigh the splendors.

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1연안해역에서 석유오염물질의 세균학적 분해에 관한 연구

(2006)홍길동 외 1명심리학41회 피인용

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(2006)홍길동41회 피인용

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