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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~123권0호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 1,440
중국사연구
123권0호(2019년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1진률(秦律)에서의 “여인(旅人)”

저자 : 천위팅

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-21 (21 pages)

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在中古时期, 韩国和中国陶器的不同特征在胎土使用和烧制过程中体现出来. 以中国华北地区为例, 烧制陶器所使用的胎土, 金属成分较多,在相对较低的温度下烧制形成自然釉陶, 其表面裂纹较多, 浸水率相对较高. 为了克服陶器浸水的问题, 进而发明了“塗甕”的处理方式.
但在韩半岛处理陶器的方法不同, 4世纪以前为了克服氧化盐烧成軟質土器的缺点, 将烧制温度提高至1200℃, 烧制成坚硬的陶瓷器, 同样可以解决浸水的问题. 两者为克服浸水问题, 出现了不同的制作工艺, 为两国陶器的独特性发展提供了契机.
陶器在秦汉时期以后逐渐开始大型化、实用化,用途也变得多种多样. 秦始皇兵马俑和汉代的庖廚画像石证明了陶器的大型化、实用化. 其使用方式和具体用途在6世纪齐民要术中有很好的阐述. 大型陶器可作为非液体容器和液体, 前者用作各种物品和物件的贮藏容器, 后者主要用于液体保存和加工. 值得注意的是,随着大型陶瓷器的出现, 加工并长期储存酒、豉、醬等发酵食品成为可能, 这促进了亚洲特有醱酵文化的兴盛, 也因此成为了维持共同生活和团结的枢纽.
随着大小陶瓷的需求和普及程度的扩大, 陶瓷成为了生活的必需品, 不仅超越了单纯的"容器"功能, 还起到了一定测量的作用. 这种现象在 齐民要术和韩半岛出水木簡中都有所体现. 由此得出, 陶器工坊制作的陶器, 应有一定的制作规范, 应由掌握胎土收缩性能、懂得火气温度调节的专业匠人制作, 陶器容量大小也应有相应的行业规范, 其确保陶器兼有一定度量衡的作用.

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3당대(唐代) 격후칙(格後勅)의 형성 배경 고찰 -“수공격후칙(垂拱格後勅)”의 성격 분석을 중심으로-

저자 : 金珍

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 59-106 (48 pages)

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“格後敕”一辭在唐代文獻中首見於『唐會要』「定格令」所載神龍元年(705)立法內容中的“刪定『垂拱格』及格後敕”. 但學界對該句中“格後敕”的解釋, 尚有爭議, 其焦點在於是否認同『垂拱格後敕』作為現行法典存在. 認定其存在的研究主要通過分析『日本國見在書目錄』所載“『垂拱後常行格』十五卷”和『令集解』所引11條的『格後敕』遺文, 指出該『垂拱後常行格』ㆍ『格後敕』均等於『垂拱格後敕』. 而認爲『垂拱格後敕』不存在的研究則以爲該“格後敕”是“『垂拱格』制定以後至神龍元年正月二十五日已前繼續頒佈的制敕”, 竝非『垂拱格後敕』. 如此, 已有的研究側重於所謂『垂拱格後敕』的存否問題, 卻似乎忽略了“格後敕”這一語詞或概念的出現. 竝且, 前者以現行法典『垂拱格後敕』為“大前提”, 去理解『日本國見在書目錄』ㆍ『令集解』所載內容, 竝沒考慮到“格後敕”這一動態的歷史產物所構建出的一條自己的形成過程, 而後者竝不重視『日本國見在書目錄』和『令集解』此兩種日本史料, 似乎未進行討論.
因此, 本文基於以往研究, 逐條析出這些日本材料, 並結合垂拱年間立法情況, 試圖辨明關於“垂拱格後敕”的性質問題. 所謂“律令格式體系”中格的功能是, 作為“追加法”對律ㆍ令ㆍ式等法典進行修改ㆍ補充和變通, 這就是其“體系”運行的實質所在. 就唐代格的編撰沿革而言, 以『垂拱格』的刪定為契機, 這種趨勢似乎更為正式化. 如此, 確立格的功能與角色, 便衍生出與格有密切關係的“格後敕”. 因為“格後敕”的出現必須以格來擔當修改法律的主角為前提, 竝且如上引用“刪定『垂拱格』及格後勅”所示, 也需要“標誌性”格的存在. 但此時還不能說格後敕是一部法典的『格後敕』, 而可理解為一些法律文件“敕”的積累, 即“格以後的敕”. 為了“格後敕”轉化到『格後敕』, 還需要經歷開元十九年(731)新法典形式『格後長行敕』的出現, 即“刪定對象”的“格後敕”變為“刪定結果”的『格後敕』階段. 另外, 本文以寫本時代文本的流動性ㆍ遣唐使所面臨購書的困惑等為線索, 討論唐朝書籍的傳入日本情況以及作為其旅程的“成果物”的『日本國見在書目錄』和『令集解』的性質. 從中可知, 其所載『垂拱後常行格』和『格後敕』是, “從'格後敕'到『格後敕』”這一過程留下來的“痕跡”, 或可以認為由多份法律文件構成的一種“檔案(archive)”. 如此, 討論“垂拱格後敕”的性質問題不僅能使我們深入理解格後敕的形成過程, 對思考格與敕的關係ㆍ其所衍生出來的法律文獻的多樣性以及“律令格式體系”的靈活性有所裨益.

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4당(唐) 후기 황위(皇位) 계승(繼承)의 양상(樣相)과 선종(宣宗)의 즉위 -장자(長子) 명분을 중심으로

저자 : 柳浚炯 ( Ryu Jun Hyoung )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 107-149 (43 pages)

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The ascension of Emperor Xuan as the Huang Tai Shu(皇太叔) to the throne was a very exceptional phenomenon not just in the Tang Dynasty but also in the whole history of China. The existing research has studied in the perspective of the political participation of the Eunuch in the late Tang Dynasty, and as a result it was understood that the Eunuch who was deeply involved in the decision of the throne was to crown Emperor Xuan as the emperor for the purpose of seizing future power. However, should the situation prior and post to the accession of Emperor Xuan be considered, there is a possibility of another separate background that could have applied regarding the ascension. For this, there is the need for an understanding of the accession of Emperor Xuan in the continuum of succession to the throne.
If we were to trace the aspect of succession to the throne that led from Emperor Xian, Emperor Mu, Emperor Jing and to Emperor Wu, it can be seen that the notion by which the Eldest son(長子) inherits the throne has been actively utilized. Furthermore, several coups and rebellions that occurred in the process also confirm the use of the concept of succession by the eldest son. Should we see this as the setting, Emperor Xian being able to ascend the throne as being the uncle of an emperor was because the cause identified by experience accumulated to that day or in other words, the concept of the eldest son to be the next in line to the throne was in common use.
Interestingly, however, this aspect emerged while the Eunuch were directly involved in the succession of the throne. As the original explanation of the accession of Emperor Xuan shows, despite the logical assumption that the selection of a young heir would help the so-called eunuch political power, in reality, we are able to see that the selection of heirs to the throne with the justification as the Eldest son was applied in the late Tang Dynasty. This is in stark contrast to the situation in which the Eunuch in the late Han Dynasty took control by crowning an underage emperor themselves. In the latter part of the Tang Dynasty, it is also understood that the Eunuch attempted to strengthen their power on the basis of enthroning emperors that are of age.

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5『치평요람(治平要覽)』에 수록된 『당감(唐鑑)』의 史論과 『제범(帝範)』

저자 : 洪承兌 ( Hong Seung Tae )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 151-186 (36 pages)

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The Chipeong Yolam (治平要覽; “The General Survey for Governance of Peace and Prosperity”) completed in King Se-jong's reign of the Joseon Dynasty (1445), is a history book compiled to read the main points of Confucian politics. It is a masterpiece of 150 volumes, which chronicled major historical events from Zhou dynasty(周朝) to Yuan dynasty(元朝) and parts of Ming dynasty. In the 23rd year of King Sejong's reign (1441), King Se-jong ordered scholars of Jiphyeonjeon(集賢殿) to compile the book and completed it after four years of writing. This book is not just a history book compiled by listing historical facts, but a kind of political textbook that selects content that will help the actual politics of the Joseon Dynasty, the Confucian country. It summed up the essence of Confucian politics from the historical experience of the rise and fall of the Tang Dynasty and political success and failure. 
This book valued Tang history so much that it devoted 25 volumes out of a total of 150 volumes to the history section of the Tang Dynasty. Most of the historical facts of Tang cited Sima Guang's “Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance” by the history of the Song Dynasty, and the historical review cited Fan zu yu's “Tang's History as a Mirror” compiled the Tang Dynasty history section of “Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance”, where he wrote his own review book separately. His historical review assessed the events of Tang Dynasty history and the actions of the monarch based on the principle of strict Confucian ethics. This review book is one of the most famous historical reviews in China, and it was highly regarded as a book that monarchs and bureaucrats had to read throughout the Joseon Dynasty. It contains a large number of historical reviews by Fan Zuyu, a Confucian scholar and historian of the Song Dynasty. Through his perspective, he tried to find the cause of the rise and fall of the Tang Dynasty, and at the same time included in detail the entire 12 chapters of “A Model of Monarchy”, which summed up the secret of the political success. “A Model of Monarchy”(12-chapter), written by Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty, laid out the core of the monarchy, including self-discipline by the monarch and the management of political power.

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6『사마법(司馬法)』에서의 반상(反常)의 미학(美學)

저자 : 李正美 ( Lee Jung Mi )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 187-236 (50 pages)

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If disputes and wars are unavoidable due to national crisis situations and social confusion and due to problems in agreement between entities which threaten internal/external politics/religions and subjects of physical, social, diplomatic existence, such situations are deemed to be abnormal situations which deviate from the normal or cause troubles. In this situation, close structures, systems, ideology, and thoughts, of an abnormal state, encounter normal and informal descriptive problems which are culturally incommunicable and resistant. Examples are indispensability and dispensability of respect and negotiation between individuals and individuals, between individuals and society, between counties and countries, and between countries and universal nature. The task to solve such sensitive problems is expansion of sympathy in understanding renben(仁本; humanism) and, further, a new start and challenge to the aesthetics to maintain and restore such relations. The aesthetic aspect of deviation in renben(仁本)-focused formalistic line is the value of substantial existence of the background and judgment before and after wars. It has historical, educational, political, and social meanings; methodological seeking and ethical norm, to suggest or recommend solutions and strategies in interpretation of them. It is concluded as formal and informal descriptive problems considering the limit, specialty, and universality of the text of below-shown Simafa(司馬法; Methods of the Minister of War), i.e. historical aesthetic aspect about how to seek for relational aesthetics in deviation. Each norm and recommendation is seeking impact on military tactics and ordering in Xiān Qín(先秦) feudal class-society. Simafa asserts and handles social and formal meanings of laws and systems such as forcibleness of each rule and law contained in enforcement principle of such norm and recommendation. These to be based upon the two faces in the order of legislation by national society, justification of the enforcement and tricky justification of them, principle of separation and distribution, and capacity of governance and cooperation. Through them, logical interpretative thoughts and styles in the system of formalistic form are concluded as a system and structure and, it is thought again, what the formalistic type is as a succession system. Also, in Simafa, both the background of utilization of illustrations and formal content is a kind of aesthetic reaction with subjects and targets of formalism or objects to transmit different aesthetic, social, and political content. And, to add a formal meaning and appreciation standard through the subject of evaluation of effective works and results and examples of utilization of non-formalistic type in contrast to such measures and plans. In addition to universal common knowledge, such as elements, structures, properties, and specific features in formal meaning, non-formalism in examples of utilization of descriptive and enumerable evaluation, standard, governance, method, and principle, are described Simafa, and, specific concept is also established at the same time. The concrete illustrations of the culture and civilization transmitted from Xiān Qín(先秦) times include; principle of relation with other persons, communication methods with society, unification and centralization with the world called countries, the land repeated rebirth through times, originators and historical reflection of today's future-oriented aesthetic view, progressive development and, practical planning are discussed making the past an example as the issue to restore and overcome political and diplomatic culture. The formal description in Simafa asserts concrete internal/external substantial principle and method of ideological elements of thesis & antithesis but shows the life of humans in an aesthetic meaning and its importance of unusual and a universal value and a specific mode as being in an anger moment and instant. For example, although the standard embryological arguments, appreciation, and evaluation of specific temporal/spatial events defines universal order and principle of ethics and morals such as standing rule, governance, norm, and disciplines called military law and lifa(禮法; etiquette), the question is, whether practice, performance, and realization of human harmonization based on renben(仁本) acts as theoretical and substantial difference and contradiction of legal justification such as right-and-wrong and pros-and-cons, etc. of object entities among individuals, societies, countries, and the world in configuration of events before and after wars and logical interpretation. Of course, in the context of before and after wars, armed struggles, disputes, and strikes cannot be justified with assignment of appropriateness of the violence by any reason. But it is expressed righteousness and un-righteousness of wars for any titles or causes is the well-known content of the text to visualize the legitimacy of rightfulness and that it is also true that the aesthetics of deviation cannot tolerate wars as non-wars. Any political, diplomatic, historical, social, military aesthetical means, methods, or principle, regardless of being force or strategies, to conduct needed wars or, to avoid unnecessary wars act as the standard of realization of legislation by laws/regulations as laws, as enumeration of various examples by formal description through keys of resolution and historical-aesthetical proofing of the evidences, as governance of the substantial meaning, i.e. formal help in the form of formalism and the form of non-formalism.

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7근대 산동(山東) 지역 해방(海防) 정책과 해양기지의 건설 -위해(威海)와 교주만(膠州灣) 기지건설을 중심으로-

저자 : 김형열 ( Kim Hyong Yol )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 237-271 (35 pages)

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The “Sea Defense” policy taken by the Qing dynasty shows China's perception of the world at that time, regardless of its military strategy. Despite his excellent scientific technique on various fields of the country, he eventually fell into a well-worn frog due largely to the lack of a national-level strategy to actively respond to the outside world. Of course, it is true that the fact that China has never experienced a large-scale invasion from the sea or that the threat of the frontier has always started in the north has lowered the level of the sea defense and made it a strategic military system centered on land power.
However, the fact that China, which had the largest battleship in the world until the Ming dynasty, still possessed naval power at the level of the Middle Ages when the Opium War broke out, and that he tried to maintain the system of the heavenly dynasty of China until the second Opium war could indicate that chinese intellectuals at that time still had a serious problem on their perception of outside world. Moreover, like the overlapping and confusion shown by fulfilling chinese westernized reform whose aim was consolidating the governance structure of the Qing Dynasty, the conditions of selecting the naval base in the Qing Dynasty indicated the closed and shortsighted nature of chinese westernized reform.
In this paper, we will look at what changes took place in the sea defense policy after the First Opium War, focusing on the Shandong region, and then on how the construction of sea defense led by Li Hong-zhang during the chinese westernized reform. In addition, we will figure out how Germany, which wanted to build a colony with a naval base in East Asia, approached China through their maritime policies and explore how the process of colonizing the Kyoju Bay by Germany has progressed.

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8“화보(畵報)”로 본“민권”과“공화”의 개념 -『민권화보(民權畵報)』를 중심으로 한 고찰-

저자 : 윤숙현

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 273-292 (20 pages)

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“민권”, “공화”, “자유” 등의 개념은 서양에서 들어온 근대적 계몽사상으로서 근대적 국민국가를 형성하는데 중요한 담론으로 작동하였다. 이러한 새로운 명사, 새로운 개념의 유통과 전파 및 확산의 과정은 신문, 잡지, 화보 등의 근대적 報障의 출현과 밀접한 관련이 있다. 최근 중국학계는 圖像을 역사를 해석하는 중요한 자료로 여기고 주목하고 있다. 『民權畵報』는 대계도가 혁명 사상을 선전하기 위해 창간한 『民權報』의 副刊이며, 1912년 3월 28일 발행을 시작하여 22期까지 발행하였는데 정확한 停刊시기는 알려지지 않고 있다. 『民權畵報』는 “공화”, “민권”, “자유” 등의 근대적 관념을 민중들이 쉽게 이해하도록 만화로써 표현하고 있다. 또한 신해혁명이후, 民國이 직면한 문제에 대해서 비평과 풍자 등의 방식을 통해서 다양한 정치, 사회문제를 보여주고 있다. 『民權畵報』는 발행 초에는 “공화국의 성립”과 “민권”, “자유” 등의 사상을 선전하고 기념하였었지만, 원세개가 내각을 조직한 후에는 주로 “僞共和”, “假共和”의 현실, 및 “공화”의 이름으로 이루어진 “國民捐” 등의 정치적 현실에 대해 비판적인 내용이 많았다. 특히, 표면상으로는 “공화”의 시대에 진입하였지만, 행정적 관원과 당시 인들의 “공화”, “민권” 및 여성에 대한 인식은 여전히 전통적인 사고와 관습에서 벗어나지 못하고 있음을 잘 보여 주고 있다. 또한 이를 통해서 당시 “배금주의”의 유행, “언론의 통제” 및 “盤中散沙”와 같은 국민성 등의 사회 현실의 단면도 볼 수 있다.

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The Korean armed-force capability during the Second Sino-Japanese War period formed the Korean Volunteer Corps (朝鮮義勇隊), the Korea Liberation Front Youths Mission Corps(韓國光復陣線靑年工作隊), the Korean Youths War Zone Guerrilla(韓國靑年戰地工作隊), and the Korean Liberation Army(韓國光復軍) one by one in China, and performed anti-Japanese propagations and recruits through their bulletins. This research, focussing on their bulletins such as the Korean Volunteer Corps Newsletter(『朝鮮義勇隊』), the Korean Youth(『韓國靑年』), and the Liberation(『光復』), grasps Korean media's situational understandings and responses during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The commonality among those journals was to promote Korean- Chinese anti-Japanese alliance depending on consolidation among Korean armed-force groups.
Regarding the contents, the Korean Volunteer Corps Newsletter, as the corps actively participated in the anti-Japanese war, did its best for strengthening real battle capacity, for Korean-Chinese alliance, and for revolutionary struggles for the liberations of oppressed East Asian nations. The Korean Youth focussed on harassing the enemy's rear and on culture and art activities such as recruiting and propagation. The Liberation dealt with the missions and affairs of Korean Liberation Army, the analyses of Korean independence movement, the theories, strategies, and tactics of independence movement, the accounts and analyses of China's anti-Japanese resistances, the comprehension of Japanese empire's situations, the disclosure of the essential cause of Japanese empire's defeat, the postwar conception, and so on.
The differences among those journals were caused by the characters and goals of each group publishing each journal, but all the journals coincided with the facts that they targeted Chinese readers, and that they tried to maximize the necessities and effects of Korean-Chinese anti-Japanese alliance. Especially, the Korean Volunteer Corps Newsletter emphasized the corps's status as the model of Korean-Chinese anti-Japanese alliance; and the Liberation showed the Korean Liberation Army's pride as the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea's only direct-controlling armed-force and as a participant of the Allied Forces.
Korean medias in China thought that the longer the war lasted, the weaker Japan's capability became, that the international aids for China made Japan's situation more disastrous, and that Korean independence movement could get better chances if Japan propelled southern expedition in order to resolve the situation. Since the outbreak of the Pacific War, Korean medias' interests shifted to securing the status of Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea among the Allies and to the matter of the initiative to construct an independent country. For the reason, Korean medias concentrated their propagation capabilities on the Allies' approval for Korean Liberation Army as an official belligerent. The concrete plan was to have China approve the Korean Provisional Government first, and then to make the UK, the US, and the USSR follow China's approval. Regarding the postwar political conception, they advocated one-party rule, in which the Provisional Government ruled by the Korea Independence Party (韓國獨立黨) should become the principal agent to construct an independent country.

KCI등재

10한(漢)대 정위(廷尉) 속관(屬官) 고찰

저자 : 옌치앙러

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 123권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 335-354 (20 pages)

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초록보기

중국 고대사회에서 법률은 사회 질서를 규율하고 사회 관계를 조정하는 수단이었으며, 행정 권력과 밀접하여 불가분의 관계를 갖고 있었다.
정위(廷尉)는 진한(秦漢) 시기 중앙 최고 행정 사법 장관이었는다. 따라서 그 기구 설치와 소속 인원들의 활동은 전제주의체제였던 중국에서 법률이 어떻게 운용되었는지를 이해하는데 참고가 되는 중요한 의미를 가진다.
정위는 바로 진(秦)나라 관제로서 한(漢)나라 조정에서는 중앙정부가 지방 제후왕들의 권력을 통제하는 기능을 담당하였다. 이로 말미암아 지방 제후 왕국의 사법 권력이 점차 중앙 정위에게로 귀속하게 되었으며, 정위정(廷尉正)은 나중에는 마침내 왕국의 최고 사법 관원이 되었다.
한(漢) 선제(宣帝) 지절(地節) 3년 정위평(廷尉平)의 설치는 한나라 법률 정책이 “엄격하고 혹독한 형법”으로부터 “덕을 숭상하는 느슨한 형벌”로 전환되는 지표이기도 하다.
한 대 정위의 형법 치옥(治獄) 즉 “정의(廷議)” 심판 과정은 정위 속리(屬吏)의 중요성을 여실히 보여준다.

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