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영미문학연구회> 영미문학연구> J. M. 쿳시의 소설과 공감적 상상력의 교육 ―『엘리자베스 코스텔로』와 『치욕』을 중심으로

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J. M. 쿳시의 소설과 공감적 상상력의 교육 ―『엘리자베스 코스텔로』와 『치욕』을 중심으로

Cultivating the Sympathetic Imagination: J. M. Coetzee’s Elizabeth Costello and Disgrace

윤영필 ( Youngphil Yoon )
  • : 영미문학연구회
  • : 영미문학연구 36권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 06월
  • : 5-32(28pages)

DOI


목차

1. 들어가며
2. 공감적 상상력과 “존재의 충만함”
3. ‘탈존’으로서의 공감적 상상력
4. 공감적 상상력의 가능성 혹은 한계: 『치욕』의 데이비드 루리의 사례
5. 맺으며
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Throughout his novels, Coetzee has probed deep into the nature of the sympathetic imagination and its elusive workings, urging the reader to accompany him on the quest. His thinking on the sympathetic imagination finds an unprecedented, vigorous expression in his recent novel Elizabeth Costello. Especially in the two ‘Lessons’ titled “the Lives of Animals”. the eponymous main character, deeply affected and disturbed by the abuse of animals and people’s indifference, gives a pair of lectures on the philosophical approach to animals and on the poetical one. She criticizes the rule of reason and the anthropocentric understanding of animals and firmly expresses her belief in the power of the sympathetic imagination, asserting that “there are no bounds to the sympathetic imagination.”
Costello’s idea of the sympathetic imagination has frequently been construed and criticized as meaning an imaginative identification with the other that is in danger of ignoring the radical otherness of being. Also she was thought to believe that the sympathetic imagination arises only through a conscious effort or voluntary decision of the ethical subject. Against these interpretations, this paper proposes an alternative reading: Costello is putting forward the possibility of the sympathetic imagination without ignoring the otherness of being, founding it upon the fullness of being and the vulnerability and finitude of embodied being that humans and animals have in common. It will be shown that she asks for the sympathetic imagination as a state of ex-stasis, a being outside oneself, and as an ethical responsibility to be open to the demands of the other. This paper concludes by adding a brief examination of Disgrace to see how it supplements and modifies Costello’s idea of the sympathetic imagination regarding its possibility and limits.

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  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 반년간
  • : 1976-197X
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  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2001-2019
  • : 262


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1J. M. 쿳시의 소설과 공감적 상상력의 교육 ―『엘리자베스 코스텔로』와 『치욕』을 중심으로

저자 : 윤영필 ( Youngphil Yoon )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 5-32 (28 pages)

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Throughout his novels, Coetzee has probed deep into the nature of the sympathetic imagination and its elusive workings, urging the reader to accompany him on the quest. His thinking on the sympathetic imagination finds an unprecedented, vigorous expression in his recent novel Elizabeth Costello. Especially in the two 'Lessons' titled “the Lives of Animals”. the eponymous main character, deeply affected and disturbed by the abuse of animals and people's indifference, gives a pair of lectures on the philosophical approach to animals and on the poetical one. She criticizes the rule of reason and the anthropocentric understanding of animals and firmly expresses her belief in the power of the sympathetic imagination, asserting that “there are no bounds to the sympathetic imagination.”
Costello's idea of the sympathetic imagination has frequently been construed and criticized as meaning an imaginative identification with the other that is in danger of ignoring the radical otherness of being. Also she was thought to believe that the sympathetic imagination arises only through a conscious effort or voluntary decision of the ethical subject. Against these interpretations, this paper proposes an alternative reading: Costello is putting forward the possibility of the sympathetic imagination without ignoring the otherness of being, founding it upon the fullness of being and the vulnerability and finitude of embodied being that humans and animals have in common. It will be shown that she asks for the sympathetic imagination as a state of ex-stasis, a being outside oneself, and as an ethical responsibility to be open to the demands of the other. This paper concludes by adding a brief examination of Disgrace to see how it supplements and modifies Costello's idea of the sympathetic imagination regarding its possibility and limits.

2브라이드웰의 창녀들: 런던 도시문제의 여성화와 브라이드웰 극들

저자 : 이미영 ( Mi Young Lee )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 33-64 (32 pages)

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This paper aims to explore the ways the urban problems of early modern London were feminized as whores in the early modern London, and how the Bridewell plays offered corrective and compensatory perspectives to the official Bridewell court records regarding this issue. Based on the research about the rapid growth of early modern London, the origin and management of Bridewell, and the history of prostitution, this paper argues that the Bridewell governors and the conservative London officials tried to project the socioeconomic problems of London to the prostitutes through the operation of Bridewell, and that by persecuting and punishing the prostitutes, they translated the complicated urban issues into a traditional moral one. As the original design of Bridewell was to address vagrancy, the most urgent problem of London, this caused a lot of criticism and vehement reactions among London citizens. Theater, as the most perceptive institution to the demands of paying customers and also as an interested party to the issues of urban morality, reacted to this issue by producing Bridewell plays. Shakespeare's Measure for Measure and Dekker's The Honest Whore Part 2 were the most notable among them. In Measure for Measure, Mistress Overdone points out the economic factors of prostitution and the hard reality of prostitutes, thereby satirizing the moral ideology of Bridewell. Also, Claudio's pseudo-execution proves that it is not Claudio, the sex offender, but Angelo, the incarnation of the principles of Bridewell, that is really guilty. If Measure for Measure provides a corrective perspective by criticizing Bridewell principles, The Honest Whore Part 2 offers other compensatory perspectives by presenting personal narratives of prostitutes, which were usually ignored in the official records. Bellafront is a retired prostitute by marriage, but every character in the play tries to define her as a whore. Ironically, it turns out that Bellafront is the only and the most honest character in the play, while the other characters including the ruling family of Milan are either immoral or problematic at best. Thus, unwittingly, Bellafront proves that the villainization of whores is just an excuse to protect the interests of the ruling class, and that it is not the genuine answer to the urban problems of Milan.

3'사물로서의 단어': 코울리지의 상징 이론과 「한밤의 서리」

저자 : 장성현 ( Sunghyun Jang )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 65-96 (32 pages)

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This paper investigates Coleridge's theory of the symbol, which can be understood to be the consummation of his linguistic, philosophical, and religious thinking. The paper applies modern speculation about 'things' to studying Coleridge's uniting of words and things in the symbol. His conception of 'words-as-things' was an attempt to bridge the widening gap between words and the world in his day. This article gives a particular focus on his great poem “Frost at Midnight,” in which clouds as symbolic signs “image” (or reflect) the forms of nature in the eyes of the poet's son. The “bulk” of the clouds attests to the materiality of the symbol, and an obvious difference between the clouds and the natural objects they appear to resemble represents the translucence of the relation between signifier and signified in the symbol. Coleridge also describes this signifying relation as consubstantial, a term indicating that his symbolist theory is grounded in his theological reflection. The “eternal language” of God (i.e. Logos) that the child directly hears in the poem, which consists of symbols, reveals itself to have been thingified as the natural world. The performance of the frost makes the poet recognize the linguistic construction of the physical world and stirs his imagination to create a symbol revealing the thingness of its referent.

4저장된 시간/시간을 저장하기: 수잔로리 팍스의 『피클링』에 나타난 정동적 아카이빙

저자 : 조연이 ( Yeoniee Cho )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 97-121 (25 pages)

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Featuring a protagonist obsessed with the past and the desire for arresting and preserving it, Suzan-Lori Parks's playlet Pickling (1988) can be recapitulated as “an equation for time saved/saving time” as made clear by the playwright. This paper examines how Pickling foregrounds and problematizes an equation posited in the equation, one between “time saved” and “saving time,” by examining how the past saved and the act of saving the past conflate onto each other through the trope of pickling time in the play. Containing various souvenirs from the past as pickled, Miss Miss's collection of jars serves as a literal metaphor for the past saved while it materializes the impossibility of fixing its presence in space and time. Drawing on an analogy between time and performance―time-based art which only exists for the time it is performed―this paper seeks to reveal the paradoxical nature of an equation between time saved and saving time as featured in Miss Miss's thwarted attempt to save the past against the dialectic between performance and the archive as examined in the performance studies from the 1990s on. Resonating with paradoxical takes on the ontology of performance that cannot be saved yet remains, Pickling reveals that the past cannot be pickled―saved or arrested―by the material archive but that it revives as present by an affective encounter with pickles―what is archived.

5셰익스피어의 잭 케이드 반란에 나타난 법의 지배 문제

저자 : 하재홍 ( Jaihong Ha ) , 박미경 ( Mikyung Park )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 123-167 (45 pages)

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This paper is an interdisciplinary approach to the relationship between Jack Cade's rebellion and the rule of law in William Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 2. Set in 1450, the history play foregrounds the intersection between Cade's anarchist revolt against the established and the paradox of justice which does no justice to all parties before the law. In this regard, for Shakespeare the rule of law has yet to be grounded in the burgeoning system of jurisprudence in early modern England in the 1590s. Shakespeare's intention to critique corrupt lawyers and their abuse of law in collaborating with aristocrats and the haves has been much discussed by critics. Yet the crucial function of audiences in the production of the history play at the Globe theatre in London has been relatively neglected. To be precise, it is compelling to take into account the presence of lawyers and Inns of Court students in the theatrical scenes of Jack Cade's rebellion. Hence, this paper claims that Shakespeare's reinterpretation of the rebellion as part of his first tetralogy gains significance in terms of the audience's response to the rebels' notorious propaganda: “let's kill all the lawyers.” Then, Cade's protest against judicial corruption points to Sir Edward Coke's and common lawyers' advocacy of liberty as a reminder of the very nature of law. We conclude by arguing that Shakespeare's play satirizes lawyers and consequently warns both them and would-be lawyers not to follow in the footsteps of crooked lawyers. The history play, therefore, urges lawyers to purge away their infringement of justice and to fulfill the rule of law with self-consciousness of their true vocation.

6Revolution of Love: Critical History of Female Subjectivity in the Novels of Toni Morrison

저자 : Song Namgung

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 169-195 (27 pages)

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Toni Morrison's fifth novel, Beloved (1987), advanced critical literary responses to female subjectivity, from the absence of subjectivity to the empowerment of black female characters through black feminist concepts of love: self-love, sisterhood, and motherhood. The inherent 'love' of African-American women emerged among black feminists as a means for revising white feminist discourses and promoting their self-esteem. In particular, the love ethic of bell hooks was spotlighted as one of the key sources for liberating not just individuals, but all African-American women. Before Beloved, critical interest remained in disputing social blockages for African-American women to retrieve their subjectivity. However, in the 1980s, Morrison publicly acknowledged attempts to use Beloved to reclaim the female subjectivity that African-American women were deprived of during slavery, as well as the sustained demands from black women writers and black feminists for the understanding of their distinguished culture. These critically transformative recognitions triggered not only the reexamination of female subjectivity in the early novels but also critical reorientation to black feminist theories. The increased critical awareness of the subjectivity of African-American women was achieved by the continuous appeals of black female writers and black feminists, and later scholarly synergy with literary critics who recognized the transformative power that love held for black women.

7Authorship and the Sublime in the Shelleys' History of a Six Weeks' Tour

저자 : Sein Oh

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 197-220 (24 pages)

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This essay pays close attention to the 1814 tour section of Shelleys' History of a Six Weeks' Tour, in order to point out that there is a gendered division of authorship for different parts of the work. By reviewing the text's aesthetic ascent into “Mont Blanc,” I argue that Percy Shelley's sublime vision in the poem is made possible by placing the problematic 1814 tour part under the female authorship anonymously wielded by Mary Shelley. The male poet's sublime vision is given full aesthetic authority as the preceding travel writing filled with excessive account of trivial particularities is fully claimed to have been written by the accompanying wife of the poet. Recognizing the collaborative nature of the work, this essay observes that both Percy and Mary were writing about their physical inconveniences. It further contends that such a division of authorship is artificially constructed to promote the poet's idea of the sublime, conforming to the gendered norms of the contemporary aesthetic traditions and thus revealing the gendering violence underneath their collaboration.

8Why Do Children Recast Familiar Stories?: The Child Storyteller in Lloyd Alexander's The Gawgon and The Boy

저자 : Bumsoo Jon

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 221-241 (21 pages)

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Lloyd Alexander's metafictional novel for children, The Gawgon and The Boy, makes use of the discontinuity between multiple layers of narrative to impede the action of the novel and disclose the manipulative contrivances of fiction and its medial quality. This effect of making the conventional deployment of the plot line strange serves a didactic function by discouraging the readers from taking the style and content for granted. It foregrounds an explicitly metafictive reflection, confronting the child readers with the fact that they are reading a constructed text. The innovative tutor in the novel incorporates popular fiction into her teaching of David, the novel's main protagonist, who has storytelling talents; but she encourages the literary child to reconstruct and re-narrate the familiar stories as he reads. While David's earlier invented narratives show the stylistic, thematic, and ideological influence of existing genres of fiction, later episodes indicate that his engagement with various genre conventions is becoming more self-conscious and critical. The literary child is able to deconstruct the accepted traditions and forms in ways that highlight their inherent assumptions and contradictions, exposing the absurdity of their apparent significance or unity. Alexander's metafiction illustrates that self-conscious storytelling is a powerful means for children to learn new perspectives, better understand social reality, and eventually develop their distinctive characters as reliable speakers and interpreters.

9Encounters with the “Here and Now”: A Subject in Crisis in Graham Swift's Waterland

저자 : Seenhwa Jeon

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 243-261 (19 pages)

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This paper examines the ways in which Swift presents Tom Crick's encounters with “the Here and Now” as disrupting the modern narrative of progress or becoming. The novel with Tom revisiting the past and telling his story as a first-person narrator foregrounds the subjective nature of the tales related while the juxtaposition of past and present in Tom's personal and familial stories not only disrupts the chronological flow of events, but also challenges the narrative of becoming based on the traditional conception of subjectivity. Swift twists the autobiographical project by placing Tom within a personal time of crisis. The disjunctive narrative then draws attention to what remain as fragments or gaps in the modern and imperial narrative of progress. The novel does not end with a satisfying closure, but shows that there will remain a hole to be explored, from which moments of the here and now will erupt to mark the limits of Tom's story.

10Manliness in the Age of the Anthropocene: Unsustainable Ecologies of Masculinity in Hard Times

저자 : Richard Bonfiglio

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 영미문학연구 36권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 263-285 (23 pages)

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Studies of Victorian work, political economy, industrialism, and realism in Hard Times have taken for granted Charles Dickens's broad range of masculine figures represented in the text. Dickens's novel explores the environmental costs of masculine ideologies conceived as endless struggle and competition. The novel's depiction of an ecological crisis in Coketown functions as an ideological critique of Victorian toxic masculinity in a double sense: as a form of masculinity that harms both women and men socially, physically, and psychologically and as a pandemic deeply linked to a larger environmental crisis caused by unsustainable forms of economic expansion. All masculine characters in Coketown embody toxic forms of masculinity that cause suffering for others and for themselves. Toxic masculinity represents both a symptom of environmental disaster in the novel and a great facilitator of climate change denial. To think ecologically in the novel entails an implicit challenge to masculinist ideologies predicated on the subordination of women and the exploitation of the environment.

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