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한국형사정책학회> 형사정책> 살인죄 양형에서 무기형 이상 부과기준에 관한 비교법적 고찰

KCI등재

살인죄 양형에서 무기형 이상 부과기준에 관한 비교법적 고찰

A Comparative Study of Sentencing Guidelines on the Imposition of Life Imprisonment or the Death Penalty in Homicide Cases

박형관 ( Park Hyungkwan )
  • : 한국형사정책학회
  • : 형사정책 31권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 07월
  • : 235-262(28pages)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 한국의 살인죄 무기형 이상 부과기준
Ⅲ. 살인죄 무기형 이상 부과기준에 관한 주요 국가의 법제
Ⅳ. 개선의 방향
Ⅴ. 결론

키워드 보기


초록 보기


						
There is no denying that sentencing should be fair and objective in achieving criminal justice. Homicide, because of its seriousness, demands a commensurate level of fairness and objectivity in deciding these cases. In homicide sentencing, not only must the standards in deciding the term of imprisonment be transparent but the standards in which a decision between life imprisonment or the death penalty is made be equally clear with no unwarranted disparity. Unfortunately, guidelines for homicide as set in Korea allows for a broad sentencing range and the standards for imposing the death penalty or life imprisonment remain vague leaving much room for a judge’s discretion.
It is a difficult task to determine what factors to consider when deciding between the death penalty or life imprisonment in homicide sentencing as well as what kind of procedure is appropriate. In this regard, it would be profitable to refer to the laws and sentencing guidelines of advanced countries.
The countries where the death penalty have been abolished have necessarily developed more concrete provisions in imposing life imprisonment than South Korea. The consideration of only one or two major factors in deciding whether to impose the death penalty or life imprisonment may at the outset seem simple and clear but it undermines the distinctiveness in sentencing as it ignores the myriad of important aggravating and/or mitigating factors in each individual case.
First of all, it would be reasonable to improve the guidelines for homicide sentences and to provide separate standards for selecting the death penalty or life imprisonment. It is necessary to present the criteria considering various aggravating and mitigating factors extracted from the analysis of sentencing practice and comparative legal review. Improved guidelines would at the first stage consider major sentencing factors such as premeditation, cruelty, the risk of recidivism and the number of victims as well as the motive for the crime. It is also pivotal to increase transparency at the next level of deliberations in deciding between life imprisonment or the death penalty by presenting any anomalies peculiar to the case. Expanding opportunities for various opinions to be aired in deciding between the death penalty or life imprisonment as in jury or citizen advisory trials would enhance objectivity and limit any prejudices that might be present in the individual.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 법학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 계간
  • : 1226-2595
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2019
  • : 685


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발행기관 최신논문
| | | | 다운로드

1언론의 범죄보도와 재판의 공정성

저자 : 김성룡 ( Kim Sung-ryong )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 7-39 (33 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

This article introduces the analysis of the questionnaire surveys result for judges and prosecutors with respect to crime report by online/offline media in Germany in 2018, and suggests to start related studies and discussions in Korea.
This article proposes to investigate whether judges and prosecutors in the criminal procedure of our country are affected by media crime reports, as the subject of the German survey studies “Not only judges but also prosecutors are just human beings” allude.
Furthermore, it is suggested to analyze the function of crime reports by media in the criminal procedure, in order to find out whether it can help the judiciary achieve the important goals or functions, such as the resumption of peace, of the criminal process. It is also suggested to identify whether the current status of crime reports in the media should be maintained, whether the balance of interests between individuals and the state(the public) should be sought through the introduction of clear standards or guidelines, and whether the balance between the purpose of criminal lawsuits and the sense of justice in public should be sought.
It is hoped that this paper will lead to the start related research in Korea, the judges and the prosecutors will be the owners of the democratic court by rule of law through the scientific analysis of that research, and the press is going to play an important and inherent role for that.

2개인정보 프로파일링(신상털기)에 관한 시놉티콘과 형법적 결단 - 정보가 권력인 디지털시대의 감시와 통제 주체를 중심으로 -

저자 : 김혜경 ( Kim Hyekyung )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 41-86 (46 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

When one right conflicts with the other rights, Criminal Law intervenes in a collision as punishment and protects or deprives of the benefit and protection of the law after comparing both of rights. In the digital era one of the new social phenomena is so-called personal information profiling, that means someone collects, profiles and uploads special person's individual information for a malevolent purpose in relation to particular social issue or affair that is payed attention to society. In other words, it is called as 'internet vigilantism' because the term 'vigilantism' derives from the Latin word 'vigilis' which means 'keep strict watch by himself'. But personal information profiling has been raised whether that violates privacy and personal information control right of other person. There is no legal system that is able to control personal information profiling in Korea.
So in this paper aims the resolutions below. Most of all it should be decided that internet vigilantism is crime or not. And then, if it is the matter of civil case, we have to find the solution in relation to “the right to be forgotten” so called “the right to erase” that means personal data must be erased immediately where the data are no longer needed for their original processing purpose, or the data subject has withdrawn his consent and there is no other legal ground for processing, the data subject has objected and there are no overriding legitimate grounds for the processing, or erasure is required to fulfil a statutory obligation under the EU law or the right of the Member States. In addition, data must naturally be erased if the processing itself was against the law in the first place. Next, it should be understanded by means of new synopticon in the digital era. The synopticon originates from the concept of panopticon and contains the meaning of surveillance of each other.
At last, this research intends to decriminalization of internet vigilantism. And that should be recognized as one of our community spirit. A pluralistic community spirit should accept opposing and various values as our social cultural diversity. As the result, our society can maintain unity without making personal information profiling as crime.

3인간의 존엄과 책임원칙 - 자유의지와 관련해 과학기술은 우리를 어디로 인도하고 있는가? -

저자 : 안성조 ( Ahn Seong Jo )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 89-138 (50 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Today, there is an overlapping consensus on human dignity in the legal academia. However, as the science and technology is more and more developing, some kinds of scientific determinism begin to pose a question about the reality of free will of human beings and thus become a threat to not only human dignity and liberalism, but also culpability principle.
This paper argues that the contemporary science such as neuroscience and quantum physics supports the possibility of free will refuting scientific determinism through the theoretical efforts of P.U. Tse and Roger Penrose. Though, the value of human dignity could be reaffirmed by the view point of modern science, modern technology such as the human enhancement including the moral neuroenhancement starts to cause a new kind of legal problems. The problem is about the 'fair application of culpability principle' and 'fair revelation of a free will' and the paper shows a legal implication of this problem.
Human dignity could be used as a supplementary interpretative principle of criminal law in some cases. For example, according to the Supreme Court a conscientiously motivated objector could be innocent because the liberalistic interpretation based on human dignity necessarily permits and tolerate the different thoughts of conscientious objector from majority. The paper also suggests that the concept of 'original position' which originated from John Rawls, could be a important method of a supplementary interpretation for the purpose of a fair application of criminal law.

4영아살해죄의 주관적 동기에 대한 일반인들의 인식

저자 : 김용애 ( Kim Yongae ) , 김민지 ( Kim Minchi )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 139-168 (30 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Because of the past legislative intention for the infanticide were different from now, difficulty of judging subjective motivation requirement of infanticide, and sentence reduction requirement for infanticide compared to murder, maintaining the infanticide law raised many questions among legal scholars and practitioners. Previous research studies on the infanticide are mostly discussed in terms of maintenance, abolition, or amendment of the infanticide law. However, public perceptions and legal sentiments of subjective motivation of infanticide have not been empirically examined.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the sentence reduction requirement for infanticide corresponds to public perceptions, especially to examine how public perceive the subjective motives of infanticide. For the study, 480 adults participated. They were randomly assigned into one of four mock infanticide trial scenarios where the defendant's subjective motivations to kill the infant was manipulated. The manipulated subjective motivations of the defendant were 1) to conceal shame of an adult offender, 2) to conceal shame for an minor offender, 3) impossible to nurture a baby, and 4) other considerable motives (abnormal mental state of the offender due to childbirth).
The results of this study are as follows. First, the subjective motivation of offender's abnormal mental state due to childbirth was mostly punished the defendant as a case of infanticide than a murder and this subjective motivation was rated as most fit category of “other considerable motives”. Second, the lowest sentence were imposed to the defendant with abnormal mental state due to childbirth and viewed as most valid subjective motivation to lower the sentence compared to murder. Based on the results, it is the right time to discuss the criminal law policy and the amendment of the infanticide. Limitations of the study was also discussed.

5범죄피해, 범죄두려움, 범죄율과 지역주민의 생활만족도의 관계에 대한 다수준 분석: 경찰활동의 영향에 대한 탐색

저자 : 조준택 ( Cho Joon Tag )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 169-202 (34 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Despite the necessity of inquiry into the relationship between crime and life satisfaction, this study conducted a multi-level analysis through a hierarchical linear model including various community environmental variables such as crime rate, considering the lack of empirical research in Korea. As a result, only specific fear of crime was negatively associated with life satisfaction whereas crime victimization, general fear of crime and crime rate were not found to be significantly related to life satisfaction. This negative effect of specific fear of crime on life satisfaction decreased in the area where the arrest rate was high. In addition, the perceived disorder had a negative effect on life satisfaction, while the community attachment as well as collective efficacy and trust in the police positively affected life satisfaction. At the regional level only the police substations was significantly and positively associated with life satisfaction, this positive effect was greater in the low-income group. Regarding cross-level interaction effects, the positive effects of community attachment and collective efficacy on life satisfaction were greater in the area where more police substations were placed. Also, the number of police substations and disposition of notification against the Minor Offenses Act were positively associated with life satisfaction in the group with low satisfaction, whereas specific fear of crime and perceived social disorder were negatively associated with life satisfaction in the group with high satisfaction. Based on the results, policy recommendations including the enhancement of arrest rate, the application of various crime prevention strategies to reduce fear of crime, the restoration of trust to police, the reinforcement of police response to disorder and the expansion of police substations were suggested, the limitations of the study were also discussed.

6CCTV의 범죄예방효과 분석: 연속적 실험처치(continuous treatment)를 위한 용량반응 모형(dose-response model)의 적용

저자 : 염윤호 ( Yeom Yun-ho )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 203-233 (31 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Examining the census output areas of Gwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea, this study analyzed crime deterrence effects of CCTV in the application of a dose-response model proposed by Cerulli(2015). This study observed the number of CCTV installed in the output areas as a zero-inflated count variable, which cannot be fully estimated with traditional propensity score or dose-response models. On contrary to the traditional models, which assume the treatment variable as either binary or normal, the revised dose-response model can solve the zero-inflated and non-normal distribution issues in the treatment variable. Using the revised dose-response model, this study found that a CCTV installed in an output area is estimated to decrease 1.23 cases of theft. On the other hands, this study did not find any statistically significant effect of CCTV on violent crime. Moreover, this study estimated that the decrease in the total population and the increase in the alcohol outlet density are estimated to positively impact the number of theft. Based on these results, this study suggested that customized crime prevention activities, in particular, the installation of CCTVs in the hotspot of theft, should be implemented in each output area.

7살인죄 양형에서 무기형 이상 부과기준에 관한 비교법적 고찰

저자 : 박형관 ( Park Hyungkwan )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 235-262 (28 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

There is no denying that sentencing should be fair and objective in achieving criminal justice. Homicide, because of its seriousness, demands a commensurate level of fairness and objectivity in deciding these cases. In homicide sentencing, not only must the standards in deciding the term of imprisonment be transparent but the standards in which a decision between life imprisonment or the death penalty is made be equally clear with no unwarranted disparity. Unfortunately, guidelines for homicide as set in Korea allows for a broad sentencing range and the standards for imposing the death penalty or life imprisonment remain vague leaving much room for a judge's discretion.
It is a difficult task to determine what factors to consider when deciding between the death penalty or life imprisonment in homicide sentencing as well as what kind of procedure is appropriate. In this regard, it would be profitable to refer to the laws and sentencing guidelines of advanced countries.
The countries where the death penalty have been abolished have necessarily developed more concrete provisions in imposing life imprisonment than South Korea. The consideration of only one or two major factors in deciding whether to impose the death penalty or life imprisonment may at the outset seem simple and clear but it undermines the distinctiveness in sentencing as it ignores the myriad of important aggravating and/or mitigating factors in each individual case.
First of all, it would be reasonable to improve the guidelines for homicide sentences and to provide separate standards for selecting the death penalty or life imprisonment. It is necessary to present the criteria considering various aggravating and mitigating factors extracted from the analysis of sentencing practice and comparative legal review. Improved guidelines would at the first stage consider major sentencing factors such as premeditation, cruelty, the risk of recidivism and the number of victims as well as the motive for the crime. It is also pivotal to increase transparency at the next level of deliberations in deciding between life imprisonment or the death penalty by presenting any anomalies peculiar to the case. Expanding opportunities for various opinions to be aired in deciding between the death penalty or life imprisonment as in jury or citizen advisory trials would enhance objectivity and limit any prejudices that might be present in the individual.

8강제채뇨의 적법성과 영장주의 그리고 절차조건

저자 : 권순민 ( Kwon Soonmin )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 263-289 (27 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Investigational compulsory urination is a method of investigation that forcibly extract urine from a person's body through a catheter. This has been a question of whether it can be allowed or not as a method of investigation that harms human dignity, given that it brings about personal encroachment, such as humiliation, along with physical pain. The Supreme Court's case confirmed that forced recruitment should be deemed to be allowed in accordance with due process if it is deemed inevitable for criminal investigations. Even though forced sampling of urine is recognized, the procedural conditions should also be strictly applied and complied with in proportion to the gravity of the infringement of basic rights of forced sampling. However, the Supreme Court says that while the legal nature of forced sampling of urine is the nature of both seize search and expert evidence, it is also possible to be treated by a single warrant of seize and search. These Supreme Court's opinion seems to make losing substantial meaning of the principle of warrant requirement and due process. It cannot be allowed that investigative agency takes a compulsory sampling of urination by only a search and seizure attached with the condition that a doctor should perform it in a medical manner, because this creates an ungrounded warrant for internal body under current law.

9저장된 데이터의 보전명령제도 도입을 위한 시론(試論)

저자 : 최호진 ( Choi Ho-jin )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 291-314 (24 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Vor der Durchsuchung und Beschlagnahme gespeicherter Computerdaten ist Umgehende Sicherung der Computerdaten die wichtige Ermittlungsmittel, wenn die Polizei wegen cyberkriminalität ermittelt. Aber wenn nach geltendem Recht ein Strafverfahren wie Beschlagnahme·Durchsuchungsbeschluss oder Anordnung der Herausgabe eingeleitet wird, um Daten zu sichern, dauert es zu lange Zeit und zudem könnten die Beweise beschädigt worden sein,wenn Bescheid uber das Strafverfahren den Betroffenen wie Beschuldigte gegeben wird. Das wird problematisch fur effektive Ermittlung bei der Ermittlung.
Daran anschließend soll mittels einer zusammenfassenden Analyse der Cybercrime-Konvention (Cybercrime Konvention des Europarates vom 23.11.2011
(im Folgenden: CyCC)) und der Vergleich mit geltendem Recht versucht werden, einen Vorschlag zu entwerfen, und bestenfalls deren Vornahme ausdrucklich durch den Gesetzgeber zu legitimieren.
Was in Art. 16 CyCC angesprochen ist,dass jede Vertragspartei die erforderlichen gesetzgeberischen und anderen
Maßnahmen trifft, damit ihre zuständigen Behörden die umgehende Sicherung
bestimmter fluchtigen Computerdaten, einschließlich Verkehrsdaten. Es legt eine Gesetzgebungspflicht der Mitgliedstaaten fest, um die Löschung und Änderung bestimmter Daten, einschließlich Verkehrsdaten, zu verhindern, und legt die Dauer der umgehenden Sicherung und die Mitwirkungspflichten der Kommunikationsdiensteanbieter fest. Außerdem wird den Verwahrer oder eine andere Person, welche die Computerdaten zu sichern hat, zu verpflichten, aufgefordert, die Vertraulichkeit der Durchfuhrung dieser Verfahren fur den nach ihrem innerstaatlichen Recht vorgesehenen Zeitraum zu behandeln.
Art. 17 CyCC spricht von der umgehenden Sicherung und teilweise Weitergabe von Verkehrsdaten und Objekt der Sicherung nur uber Verkehrdaten zu regeln. In die Überlegung wurde bei technischer Veränderung der Übermittlung der Daten im Informationsnetzwerk berucksichtigt. In Art. 17 CyCC ist Sicherung der Verkehrsdaten allen Diensteanbieter, die an der Übermittlung dieser
Kommunikation beteiligt waren, angeordnet zu werden, damit Ermittlungsbehörde die zur Bestätigung des Kommunikationsweges Verkehrsdaten sicherstellen. Die an der Übermittlung dieser Kommunikation beteiligte Diensteanbieter hat die Mitwirkungspflichten an die zuständige Behörde.
Zum vorgenannte Problemfeld gibt es im koreanischen Recht Maßnamen mit der Datensicherung durch die Beschlagnahme· Durchsuchung und der Aufforderung fur Kommunikationsbestätigungsdaten nach dem Gesetze zum Schutz des Fernmeldgeheimnisses. Aber die Sicherungsanordnung in CyCC ist von der Datensicherung durch die Beschlagnahme·Durchsuchung unterscheidet, weil sie eine Maßnahme nicht fur direkte Sicherung der Computerdaten, sondern fur wirksame, angemessene Beschlagnahme· Durchsuchung und der Aufforderung fur Kommunikationsbestätigungsdaten ist. Zu berucksichtigen ist, dass deutliche Unterschiede zwischen den Kommunikationsbestätigungsdaten nach dem Gesetze zum Schutz des Fernmeldgeheimnisses und den Verkehrsdaten bestehen, können Ermittlungsbehörde die Herausgabe nicht aufgefordert werden und haben Kommunikationsdiensteanbieter ebenfalls keine Mitwirkungspflichten, obwohl Kommunikationsdiensteanbieter die Verkehrsdaten aufbewahren. Bedenken ergeben sich in diesem Zusammenhang hinsichtlich dieser Tatsache, gibt es keine Vorschriften bei Sicherungs der Computerdaten im geltenden Rechtssystem.
Es erscheint sachgemäß,im Sinne des Art. 16 und Art. 17 CyCC sollte Sicherungsanordnung uber Computer- und Verkehrsdaten eingefuhrt werden. Bezuglich der neue entsprechende Legitimation ist umfassende Berucksichtigung uber Datensaufbewahrungspflicht von den Diensteanbietern und die Kontrollnotwendigkeit uber Datenssicherungsanordnung durch die gesetzliche Ermächtigungsgrundlage, ergänzend dazu auch die Notwendigkeit der rechtsstaatlichen Kontrollemaßnahme erforderlich.

1
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27권 4호 ~ 27권 4호

KCI후보

안암법학
59권 0호 ~ 59권 0호

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형사정책
31권 3호 ~ 31권 3호

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한국의료법학회지
23권 1호 ~ 25권 2호

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경찰법연구
17권 3호 ~ 17권 3호

KCI등재

한국의료법학회지
12권 1호 ~ 27권 1호

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법학논총
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법학연구
75권 0호 ~ 75권 0호

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법학논집
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피해자학연구
27권 2호 ~ 27권 2호

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KCI등재

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