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한국현대영미시학회> 현대영미시연구> 자유시 ―찰스 번스틴의 경우

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자유시 ―찰스 번스틴의 경우

Free Verse: in the Case of Charles Bernstein

구자광 ( Jakwang Gu )
  • : 한국현대영미시학회
  • : 현대영미시연구 25권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 11월
  • : 63-88(26pages)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 들어가며
Ⅱ. 벤야민의 ‘순수언어’
Ⅲ. 아감벤의 ‘작동하지 않음’
Ⅳ. 번스틴의 ‘자유시’
Ⅴ. 나가며
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초록 보기


						
The aim of this paper is to understand American language poet, Charles Bernstein’s ‘language poetics’ through Walter Benjamin’s ‘pure language’ and Giorgio Agamben’s ‘inoperativity.’ According to Benjamin, language for communication and information through ‘expression’ and ‘meaning’ of subject’s intention is language constructed by bourgeois concept of language. Benjamin’s ‘pure language’ means communicability freed from ‘intention’ and ‘meaning’ of bourgeois language and ‘expressionless’ language indifferent to expression. Agamben’s ‘pure’ can be attached to what practices ‘inoperativity.’ Agamben’s ‘pure capability’ is capability of incapability which can render its own capability inoperative. Agamben names this capability of its own incapability as ‘sui generis praxis.’ Human subjectivity is the place where this ‘sui generis praxis’ happens. Agamben’s ‘inoperativity’ ‘suspends’ specific and concrete operations and ‘exposes’ possibilities of ‘different’ operations at the same time. Benjamin’s ‘pure language’ is communicability as communication of communication exposed through suspension of specific and concrete communication based on expression and meaning of bourgeois language.
Language in Bernstein’s ‘language poetics’ is language freed from bourgeois language and ‘expressionless’ language indifferent to expression and language operated by Agamben’s ‘inoperativity.’ Bernstein’s ‘language poetics’ ‘suspends’ ‘Official Verse Culture’ based on bourgeois language and ‘exposes’ possibilities for ‘different’ ‘foreign’ languages. Bernstein’s ‘language poetics’ halts ‘free verse’ by poet subjects presupposed by ‘Official Verse Culture’ and ‘lyric’ of ‘expression of universal human feeling’ by ‘Official Verse Culture.’ ‘Free verse’ by ‘language poetics’ is ‘free verse’ freed from ‘free verse’ and ‘lyric’ by poetics of ‘Official Verse Culture.’ ‘Free verse’ of ‘language poetics’ where ‘sui generis of language’ happens can be said to be the place where ‘sui generis praxis’ of free verse happen.

UCI(KEPA)

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  • : KCI등재
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  • : 1598-138X
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  • : 연속간행물
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  • : 381


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1(탈)식민공간에 대한 고고학적 탐색과 발굴 ―셰이머스 히니의 글쓰기 시학

저자 : 강민건 ( Mingun Kang )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-30 (30 pages)

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The purpose of this paper is to explore Ireland, a colonial-controlled contemporary space, through the poetic representation of Seamus Heaney. The place seen through the experiences of the subjects in the poetic representation extends from the private to the public. In other words, not the history and social perception of place as a grand discourse, but the places that have been neglected through the sight of the marginalized and the subaltern present a vision of a new place. The memory of the place that remained in the memory of the past is not excluded or forgotten, but rather presents the dynamics of the future by poet's dense observation. Viewed from the perspectives, Seamus Heaney seeks to enter a new world of cleansing through the hopes inferred by the powerless forever. For Heaney, the memory of this space and the people who have been represented in modern times through texts proved the sound of the place and its physical history through his text. In the end, He presents the memory of the poor colonial space that belongs to the category of human unconscious as a new vision and the memory of the conscious space called historical truth through archeological search. His archaeological poetics, in other words, can be seen as a textual interpretation of the relics of the unconscious memory. In this sense, his archaeological writings are carried out through the poet's language, the archaeological search and discovery of past place. After all, His Archeological writing can be meaningful in that it independently achieves the other interpretation of distorted colonial desires to the (post)colonial space of Ireland.

2예이츠의 『연옥』, 단테의 『신곡』의 「연옥」, 그리고 파운드의 「캔토 XVI」에 나타난 지상낙원의 구현

저자 : 고준석 ( Joon Seog Ko )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 31-61 (31 pages)

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W. B. Yeats, Dante Alighieri, and Ezra Pound depict the earthly paradise in their works, and emphasize their pursuits of ideal worlds and the importance of purification of sins. The earthly paradise is described elaborately, or is sung indirectly as symbols and images in their works. And it excites the reader's mind by projecting the poets' imagery into their works purely.
Yeats, in Purgatory, shows that the spirits in afterlife return this world and look back on their past life. He connects the spirits' earthly life which is not accomplished themselves in this world with the life of ancestor who was lived the aristocratic one; Dante, in Lα Divinα Commediα's “Purgatorio”, portrays definitely the earthly paradise of afterlife, and focuses on the purification of sins by showing it a place where spirits purify all of their sins; Pound describes the scene of purgatory similar to Dante's purgatory in the first part of “Canto XVI”, but, in the second part, puts emphasis on the survivors in the hell of a war as the inhabitant of the earthly paradise by depicting a hell such as Franco-Prussian, the Silk War of Ragusa, World War I, and the Russian Revolution. With overlapping techniques, he makes readers be conscious of the meaning of the earthly paradise themselves and create a new earthly paradise.
In short, the earthly paradise is embodied by a poet as Dante, but is created by a reader in Yeats's and Pound's works by going on a pilgrimage to search for the earthly paradise. The works represent one of the characteristics of modern poetry through shifting the focus from a poet to a reader.

3자유시 ―찰스 번스틴의 경우

저자 : 구자광 ( Jakwang Gu )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 63-88 (26 pages)

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The aim of this paper is to understand American language poet, Charles Bernstein's 'language poetics' through Walter Benjamin's 'pure language' and Giorgio Agamben's 'inoperativity.' According to Benjamin, language for communication and information through 'expression' and 'meaning' of subject's intention is language constructed by bourgeois concept of language. Benjamin's 'pure language' means communicability freed from 'intention' and 'meaning' of bourgeois language and 'expressionless' language indifferent to expression. Agamben's 'pure' can be attached to what practices 'inoperativity.' Agamben's 'pure capability' is capability of incapability which can render its own capability inoperative. Agamben names this capability of its own incapability as 'sui generis praxis.' Human subjectivity is the place where this 'sui generis praxis' happens. Agamben's 'inoperativity' 'suspends' specific and concrete operations and 'exposes' possibilities of 'different' operations at the same time. Benjamin's 'pure language' is communicability as communication of communication exposed through suspension of specific and concrete communication based on expression and meaning of bourgeois language.
Language in Bernstein's 'language poetics' is language freed from bourgeois language and 'expressionless' language indifferent to expression and language operated by Agamben's 'inoperativity.' Bernstein's 'language poetics' 'suspends' 'Official Verse Culture' based on bourgeois language and 'exposes' possibilities for 'different' 'foreign' languages. Bernstein's 'language poetics' halts 'free verse' by poet subjects presupposed by 'Official Verse Culture' and 'lyric' of 'expression of universal human feeling' by 'Official Verse Culture.' 'Free verse' by 'language poetics' is 'free verse' freed from 'free verse' and 'lyric' by poetics of 'Official Verse Culture.' 'Free verse' of 'language poetics' where 'sui generis of language' happens can be said to be the place where 'sui generis praxis' of free verse happen.

4“최상의 허구” 시론과 시뮬라시옹, 그리고 가상의 실재 ―월러스 스티븐스, 쟝 보드리야르, 유발 하라리를 중심으로

저자 : 김성현 ( Sunghyun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 89-118 (30 pages)

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Wallace Stevens' idea of supreme fiction is one of the most important poetic concepts that helps to get insights on the relationship between reality and imagination. Reality does not consist only of objective things; inevitably it needs to be intervened by human imagination. The idea of imagination getting involved in reality entails the fictive aspect of reality. This perspective resonates with Jean Baudrillard's concept of simulation and Yuval Harari's idea of “the belief of fictional entities.” It is because of language as a sign that reality consists partly of fictional things. The ideas of language, sign, and reality are all those three thinkers have in common. Especially, in the age of post-truth when it is getting harder to clearly discern between truth and untruth, Stevens' idea of supreme fiction is conducive in realizing truth of the world along with Baudrillard and Harari's thoughts.

5제1차 세계대전 이후 “유럽의 발칸화”에 대한 엘리엇의 진단과 처방

저자 : 김준환 ( Joon-hwan Kim )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 119-165 (47 pages)

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This paper explores how T. S. Eliot(1888-1965), as a poet and as a critic, diagnosed the aftermath of the first World War as the “Balkanization of Europe” and prescribed the “tradition” embodying “the mind of Europe” for the split of Europe into separate nations especially after the Treaty of Versailles. The first section discusses seemingly contradictory but complementary roles of the poet and the critic by comparing a poem “Gerontion” with a prose work “Tradition and the Individual Talent,” both published around the time when the treaty was signed (1919.06.28). The second section shows how the poet illustrates the split of Europe without any possibility of mutual communication: he diagnosed the situation and re-presented it as a “heap of broken images” or “these fragments” in “What the Thunder Said” of The Waste Land (1922). Parallel to the second section, the third section examines how the critic and editor of The Criterion(1922-1939.01) tried to build up not political or economic but literary, cultural and religious solidarity among separate European nations till after the second World War when he re-claimed the 'unity of European culture.' The last section comments on the limitations of Eliot's Euro-centric response and recent Anglo-American studies on this issue, introducing two different interpretations of Eliot's diagnosis and prescription by his contemporary Korean writers―Jae-Sou Choi and Ki-Rim Kim.

6라구나 푸에블로의 생명력 ―『이야기꾼』의 생태여성학적 읽기

저자 : 김희성 ( Hee Sung Kim )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 167-195 (29 pages)

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This article examines how Leslie Marmon Silko brings together the feminist and ecological themes and presents the Pueblo's world view about the interconnected life force of nature and women. In Silko's autobiographical work, Storyteller, she contrasts Euro-American and Pueblo's attitudes toward nature and associates women and nature since they have been suppressed by the dominant Euro-American culture but they possess subversive potential against the colonizers. Central to the Pueblo cosmos are harmonious nature but unrestrained creativity. In addition, Pueblo traditions believed that Pueblo women had the power to protect their community with their freedom that abolishes gender roles and the uninhibited sexuality which affirms the life force of nature. Silko acknowledges subversive energy of nature and women in order to attain the harmonious and continuous Pueblo cosmos. In contrast, Euro-American culture separates nature from humans and misuses it. The isolation destroys the order and harmony of the Pueblo universe, which leads to illness of the world. Silko suggests that the Pueblos focus on their own customs and traditions in order to become healed and recover the unity and integration of nature. Silko envisions an alternative character to resist the destructive hegemony. Coyote in the Pueblo traditions is a trickster figure who demonstrates the ambivalence of life. Coyote seeks natural and uncontrollable appetites, which results in creative possibility. Silko creates a more powerful image of Coyote who opposes white authority and protects the Pueblo community. The ecofeminist reading of Storyteller helps us to connect the oppression of women and the oppression of nature through colonialism and provides insight into the Pueblo traditions in order to reclaim nature and women's potential creativity.

7W. H. 오든의 문화적 영향 ―대중 매체를 중심으로

저자 : 박연성 ( Yeon-seong Park )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 197-224 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this paper is to collect and analyze the cultural contents which include the poems of W. H. Auden(1907-73). In the 21st century the cultural contents such as films and popular music are more appealing to the public than literary texts. This trend is not desirable because literature has owned such values as nurturing empathy, imagination and creativity. If literary texts are included in the cultural contents, they can reach the wider public. This paper argues that the poetic work of Auden has been included in many sectors of cultural contents; as a result his poems could trespass the borders of the academic ivory tower.
Four BBC documentaries: “The Auden Landscape” (1982), “The Addictions of Sin: W. H. Auden in His Own Words” (2007), “Tell me the Truth about Love” (2012) and “Stop All the Clocks” (2017) dealt with the life and poems of Auden. Meanwhile a famous film, “Four Weddings and a Funeral” (1994) ignited the popularity of Auden's poems. Several poems including “Stop all the Clocks,” “Lullaby,” “Lady Weeping at the Crossroads” are set to music from classical to popular songs. Lastly lines from his poem “In Memory of W. B. Yeats” and “September 1, 1939” have been included in the addresses of Madonna and presidential candidates of America.
The notable fact in the cultural contents including Auden's poems is that the most prevalent theme is love. Auden has started his literary career as the leader of Auden Generation in the 1930s and finished it as a great poet whose poems become a memorable speech.

8권력에 대한 저항으로서의 시 ―밥 퍼렐먼의 『별칭』

저자 : 양균원 ( Kyoonwon Yang )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 225-272 (48 pages)

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This study aims to figure out Bob Perelman's view of language by examining “The Marginalization of Poetry,” one of his poetic theories written in verse, and to catch up with the way his “new sentence” works for “de-narrativization” and “re-narrativizationin” in the first two sections of a.k.a. Perelman criticizes in public that lyric poetry, in its adherence to “official verse culture,” takes its origin from the poet's transcendental self. His idea of marginalia supports an effort to write for what is cast away through mainstream publishing, literary awards, and marketing. In a.k.a., Perelman experiments a kind of open writing in which the reader takes as much part as the author to establish possible connections between estranged sentences. Readers are left to find a “master narrative” among sentences which are juxtaposed without subordination to higher logic of paragraph. A critique of late capitalism may be a possible “master narrative” as it appears in various parts of a.k.a. It is after the poet's “de-narrativization” that language can be exempt from invisible forces affecting us socially or culturally. It is after the reader's collaboration that we are given a chance for “re-narrativization.”

9셰이머스 히니의 시의 에로티즘 연구 ―과잉에의 헌신

저자 : 염정인 ( Jeongin Yeum )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 273-308 (36 pages)

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This study intends to demonstrate how Seamus Heaney devotes himself to excess and examines how his devotion leads to his poetics as a unique metaphor, focusing on his sexuality poems. Heaney's sexuality poems put a meaningful perspective on humans and their lives. Heaney treats sexuality as a way of devoting himself to his excessive self-consciousness and details in his poems. The unexpected combination of 'sexuality,' 'excess,' 'devotion' gives Heaney's poetry unusual energy. Heaney's early works talk about juvenile sexuality with his overflowing sense of language, while later ones make use of it as a unique way in the process of building his poetics. In order to give a concentrative consideration to his sexuality poems, this study aims to investigate how Heaney's eroticism is shown in his poetry, and then mention his 'reticence' poetics described in his The Government of the Tongue and The Redress of Poetry. In considering the process of according apparent controversial 'excess' with 'reticence' and pursuing his own poetics, this study aims to shed a new light on Heaney's poetry and poetics as a whole.

10에밀리 디킨슨과 동양

저자 : 유슬기 ( Seulki Yu ) , 권승혁 ( Seunghyeok Kweon )

발행기관 : 한국현대영미시학회 간행물 : 현대영미시연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 309-339 (31 pages)

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While it is well known that some American writers, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and so on had great enthusiasm for the East, Emily Dickinson has been an exceptional American poet who does not deal with any topic on the East. She seemed to have a reclusive life and have no interest in the East, however, recent studies by Cristanne Miller, Yanbin Kang, and other Dickinson scholars have revealed that she had also a keen interest in the East, and wrote some poems on it. On the basis of these recent studies on Dickinson and the East, this paper is going to investigate the ways in which she encountered and invented the East in her poetic works, and articulate its meaning and significance. Her visit to the Chinese Museum at the Malboro' Chapel of Boston at her age of sixteen, her life-long gardening of the Asian flowers at her homestead, her intensive readings on the East in Emerson's Poems, Thomas Wentworth Higginson's publications in The Atlantic Monthly and the various news on the East in The Springfield Republican helped her shape her own idea on it. She usually visualized the East as a spectacular sunrise, but transformed its stereotypical idea of her contemporaries into a revolutionary one. Her imaginative idea on the East challenges not only the puritanical ideas on death but also the imperialistic idea on the East. As her use of the punctuation marks, lineation, and fascicles makes her poems distinctive, her concept on the East gives her work a rich and significant dimension.

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