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대한결핵 및 호흡기학회> Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases> Diffuse Hypertrophic Pachymeningeal Tuberculosis

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Diffuse Hypertrophic Pachymeningeal Tuberculosis

Verajit Chotmongkol , Sittichai Khamsai
  • : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회
  • : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 10월
  • : 321-323(3pages)

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  • : 의약학분야  > 내과학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1738-3536
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1954-2020
  • : 4975


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1Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Highly Effective but Often Overlooked

저자 : Michael T. Arnold , Brett A. Dolezal , Christopher B. Cooper

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 257-267 (11 pages)

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Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receive a range of treatments including but not limited to inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, supplemental oxygen, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary intervention that seeks to combine patient education, exercise, and lifestyle changes into a comprehensive program. Programs 6 to 8 weeks in length have been shown to improve health, reduce dyspnea, increase exercise capacity, improve psychological well-being, and reduce healthcare utilization and hospitalization. Although the use of pulmonary rehabilitation is widely supported by the literature, controversy still exists regarding what should be included in the programs. The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for pulmonary rehabilitation and identify the areas that hold promise in improving its utilization and effectiveness.

2The Attributable Risk of Smoking on All-Cause Mortality in Korean: A Study Using KNHANES IV-VI (2007-2015) with Mortality Data

저자 : Young Sik Park , Sangshin Park , Chang-hoon Lee

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 268-275 (8 pages)

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Background: It is not evident that the attributable risk of smoking on mortality in Korea has decreased. We investigated the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality and estimated the attributable risk of smoking in Korean adults.
Methods: Those aged ≥20 years with smoking history in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2015 were enrolled. We categorized the participants into three groups as follows: never smoker, <20 pack-years (PY) smokers, and ≥20 PY smokers. We applied inverse probability weighting using propensity scores to control various confounders between the groups. All-cause mortality risks were compared between the groups using the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test. The effects of smoking-attributable risks (ARs) on mortality were also calculated.
Results: A total of 50,458 participants were included. Among them, 19,334 (38.3%) were smokers and 31,124 (61.7%) were never smokers. Those with a smoking history of 20 PY or more (≥20 PY smokers), those with a smoking history of less than 20 PY (<20 PY smokers), and never smokers were 18.1%, 20.2%, and 61.7%, respectively, of the study population. Smokers had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to never smokers (log-rank test p<0.01). The ARs of smoking were 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%-37.9%) and 9.0% (95% CI, 6.1%-12.0%) in males and females, respectively. ARs decreased from 24.2% to 19.5% in males and from 9.5% to 4.1% in females between 2007-2010 and 2011-2015.
Conclusion: Our study using KNHANES IV-VI data demonstrated that smoking increased the risk of all-cause mortality in a dose-response manner and the ARs of smoking on mortality were 21.8% in males and 9.0% in females during 2007- 2015. This suggests that the ARs of smoking on mortality have decreased since around 2010.

3Risk Factors for Predicting Hypoxia in Adult Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy under Sedation

저자 : Ji Soo Choi , Eun Hye Lee , Sang Hoon Lee , Ah Young Leem , Kyung Soo Chung , Song Yee Kim , Ji Ye Jung , Young Ae Kang , Moo Suk Park , Joon Chang , Young Sam Kim

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 276-282 (7 pages)

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Background: Flexible bronchoscopy is one of the essential procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of hypoxia in adults undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under sedation.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 2,520 patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy under sedation at our tertiary care university hospital in South Korea January 1, 2013-December 31, 2014. Hypoxia was defined as more than 5%-point reduction in the baseline percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) or SpO2 < 90% for >1 minute during the procedure.
Results: The mean age was 64.7±13.5, and 565 patients developed hypoxia during the procedure. The mean sedation duration and midazolam dose for sedation were 31.1 minutes and 3.9 mg, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that older age, a low forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), use of endobronchial ultrasound, the duration of sedation, and the midazolam dose were associated with the occurrence of hypoxia during the procedure, while the multivariate analysis found that age >60 (odds ratio [OR], 1.32), a low FEV1 (OR, 0.99), and a longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes; OR, 1.33) were significant risk factors.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that patients older than age 60 and those with a low FEV1 tend to develop hypoxia during the bronchoscopy under sedation. Also, longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes) was a significant risk factor for hypoxia.

4Evolution of Interferon-Gamma Release Assay Results and Submillisievert Chest CT Findings among Close Contacts of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

저자 : Soonho Yoon , Do-cic Mihn , Jin-wha Song , Sung A Kim , Jae-joon Yim

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 283-288 (6 pages)

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Background: Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection among TB contacts is diagnosed using plain chest radiography and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). However, plain chest radiographs often miss active TB, and the results of IGRA could fluctuate over time. The purpose of this study was to elucidate changes in the results of the serial IGRAs and in the findings of the serial submillisievert chest computed tomography (CT) scans among the close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients.
Methods: Patients age 20 or older with active pulmonary TB and their close contacts were invited to participate in this study. Two types of IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay [QFT-GIT] and the T-SPOT.TB test [T-SPOT]) and submillisievert chest CT scanning were performed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after enrollment.
Results: In total, 19 close contacts participated in this study. One was diagnosed with active pulmonary TB and was excluded from further analysis. At baseline, four of 18 contacts (22.2%) showed positive results for QFT-GIT and T-SPOT; there were no discordant results. During the follow-up, transient and permanent positive or negative conversions and discordant results between the two types of IGRAs were observed in some patients. Among the 17 contacts who underwent submillisievert chest CT scanning, calcified nodules were identified in seven (41.2%), noncalcified nodules in 14 (82.4%), and bronchiectasis in four (23.5%). Some nodules disappeared over time.
Conclusion: The results of the QFT-GIT and T-SPOT assays and the CT images may change during 1 year of observation of close contacts of the active TB patients.

5Diagnostic Evaluation of Non-Interpretable Results Associated with rpoB Gene in Genotype MTBDRplus Ver 2.0

저자 : Binit Kumar Singh , Rohini Sharma , Parul Kodan , Manish Soneja , Pankaj Jorwal , Neeraj Nischal , Ashutosh Biswas , Sanjay Sarin , Ranjani Ramachandran , Naveet Wig

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 289-294 (6 pages)

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Background: Line probe assay (LPA) is standard diagnostic tool to detect multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Noninterpretable (NI) results in LPA (complete missing or light wild-type 3 and 8 bands with no mutation band in rpoB gene region) poses a diagnostic challenge.
Methods: Sputum samples obtained between October 2016 and July 2017 at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, New Delhi, India were screened. Smear-positive and smear-negative culturepositive specimens were subjected to LPA Genotype MTBDRplus Ver 2.0. Smear-negative with culture-negative and culture contamination were excluded. LPA NI samples were subjected to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) using MGIT-960 and sequencing.
Results: A total of 1,614 sputum specimens were screened and 1,340 were included for the study (smear-positive [n=1,188] and smear-negative culture-positive [n=152]). LPA demonstrated 1,306 (97.5%) valid results with TUB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) band, 24 (1.8%) NI, three (0.2%) valid results without TUB band, and seven (0.5%) invalid results. Among the NI results, 22 isolates (91.7%) were found to be rifampicin (RIF) resistant and two (8.3%) were RIF sensitive in the pDST. Sequencing revealed that rpoB mutations were noted in all 22 cases with RIF resistance, whereas the remaining two cases had wild-type strains. Of the 22 cases with rpoB mutations, the most frequent mutation was S531W (n=10, 45.5%), followed by S531F (n=6, 27.2%), L530P (n=2, 9.1%), A532V (n=2, 9.1%), and L533P (n=2, 9.1%).
Conclusion: The present study showed that the results of the Genotype MTBDRplus assay were NI in a small proportion of isolates. pDST and rpoB sequencing were useful in elucidating the cause and clinical meaning of the NI results.

6Role of Bedside Ultrasonography in Assessment of Diaphragm Function as a Predictor of Success of Weaning in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

저자 : Mostafa Ibrahim Elshazly , Khaled Mahmoud Kamel , Reem Ibrahim Elkorashy , Mohamed Said Ismail , Jumana Hesham Ismail , Hebatallah Hany Assal

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 295-302 (8 pages)

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Background: Weaning failure is common in mechanically ventilated patients, and if ultrasound can predict weaning outcome remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diaphragmatic function (thickness and excursion) measured by ultrasound as a predictor of the extubation outcome.
Methods: We included 62 mechanically ventilated patients from the chest intensive care unit in this study. Sixty-two patients who successfully passed the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) were enrolled. The transthoracic ultrasound of the diaphragm was performed during an SBT to the assess diaphragmatic function (excursion and thickness), and they were classified into the successful extubation group and the failed extubation group.
Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the successful extubation group in the diaphragmatic excursion and thickness fraction (p<0.001), a statistically significant negative correlation between the diaphragmatic function and the duration of the mechanical ventilation, and a statistically significant negative correlation between the diaphragmatic excursion and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. The diaphragmatic excursion cutoff value predictive of weaning was 1.25 cm, with a specificity of 82.1% and a sensitivity of 97.1% respectively, and the diaphragmatic thickness cut-off value predictive of weaning was 21.5%, with a specificity of 60.7% and a sensitivity of 91.2%, respectively.
Conclusion: The diaphragmatic ultrasonography was found to be a promising tool for predicting the extubation outcome for mechanically ventilated patients.

7The Impact of Mechanical Ventilation Duration on the Readmission to Intensive Care Unit: A Population-Based Observational Study

저자 : Hyun Woo Lee , Young-jae Cho

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 303-311 (9 pages)

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Background: If the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) is related with the intensive care unit (ICU) readmission must be clarified. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if prolonged MV duration increases ICU readmission rate.
Methods: The present observational cohort study analyzed national healthcare claims data from 2006 to 2015. Critically ill patients who received MV in the ICU were classified into five groups according to the MV duration: MV for <7 days, 7-13 days, 14-20 days, 21-27 days, and ≥28 days. The rate and risk of the ICU readmission were estimated according to the MV duration using the unadjusted and adjusted analyses.
Results: We found that 12,929 patients had at least one episode of MV in the ICU. There was a significant linear relationship between the MV duration and the ICU readmission (R2=0.85, p=0.025). The total readmission rate was significantly higher as the MV duration is prolonged (MV for <7 days, 13.9%; for 7-13 days, 16.7%; for 14-20 days, 19.4%; for 21-27 days, 20.4%; for ≥28 days, 35.7%; p<0.001). The analyses adjusted by covariables and weighted with the multinomial propensity scores showed similar results. In the adjusted regression analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model, the MV duration was significantly related to the ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 1.058 [95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.069], p<0.001).
Conclusion: The rate of readmission to the ICU was significantly higher in patients who received longer durations of the MV in the ICU. In the clinical setting, closer observation of patients discharged from the ICU after prolonged periods of MV is required.

8Short-Term Lung Function Changes and Predictors of Progressive Systemic Sclerosis-Related Interstitial Lung Disease

저자 : Punchalee Kaenmuang , Asma Navasakulpong

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 312-320 (9 pages)

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Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) involves multiple organ systems and has the highest mortality among connective tissue diseases. Interstitial lung disease is the most common cause of death among SSc patients and requires closer studies and follow-ups. This study aimed to identify lung function changes and predictors of progressive disease in systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD).
Methods: A retrospective study extracted SSc patients from an electronic database January 2002-July 2019. Eligible cases were SSc patients >age 15 diagnosed with SSc-ILD. Factors associated with progressive disease were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results: Seventy-eight SSc-ILD cases were enrolled. Sixty-five patients (83.3%) were female, with mean age of 44.7±14.4, and 50 (64.1%) were diffuse type SSc-ILD. Most SSc-ILD patients had crackles (75.6%) and dyspnea on exertion (71.8%), and 19.2% of the SSc-ILD patients had no abnormal respiratory symptoms but had abnormal chest radiographic findings. The most common diagnosis of SSc-ILD patients was non-specific interstitial pneumonia (43.6%). The lung function values of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and DLCO per unit alveolar volume declined in progressive SSc-ILD during a 12-month follow-up. Male and no previous aspirin treatment were the two significant predictive factors of progressive SSc-ILD with adjusted odds ratios of 5.72 and 4.99, respectively.
Conclusion: This present study showed that short-term lung function had declined during the 12-month follow-up in progressive SSc-ILD. The predictive factors in progressive SSc-ILD were male sex and no previous aspirin treatment. Close follow-up of the pulmonary function tests is necessary for early detection of progressive disease.

9Diffuse Hypertrophic Pachymeningeal Tuberculosis

저자 : Verajit Chotmongkol , Sittichai Khamsai

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 321-323 (3 pages)

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10Smoking, as a Death Messenger

저자 : Hye Jung Park

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 324-325 (2 pages)

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Gut and Liver
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Gut and Liver
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Gut and Liver
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Postgraduate Courses (PG)
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