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106권0호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 16
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108권0호(2021년 08월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1혜림 《일체경음의》의 한국 전파와 중국의 재유입

저자 : 신원철 ( Shin¸ Wonchul )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-16 (16 pages)

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This thesis aims to deal with the whole story of how Huilin慧琳's Yiqiejingyinyi(一切經音義, lit. The pronunciation and meaning of vocabularies of all the Buddhist classics, abbr. Huilinyinyi慧琳音義) was propagated to Korea, preserved, and reintroduced into China. Huilinyinyi was written in A.D. 807(Tang唐 dynasty of China) by Buddhist monk Huilin born in Shule疏勒 country. Yiqiejingyinyi was a handbook which was, before Huilin wrote, edited in A.D. 649(early Tang dynasty) by Xuanying玄應, and after Huilin's work were revised by many Buddhist scholar. Among them, The particularity of Huilinyinyi is that Huilin, as a foreigner, explained the pronunciation and the meaning of the vocabularies in the Buddhist classics translated into Chinese through Chinese classics and linguistics works. It can be assumed that such work was pursed in terms of understanding and curiosity of Chinese as a foreigner. Huilinyinyi was recorded in the Tripitaka Koreana of Haeinsa Temple해인사(海印寺) that remains today, i.e. Koryo jaejo daejangkyong고려재조대장경(高麗再雕大藏經) which is a complete edition of the Buddhist classics, which was affected by Kaibaochibandazangjing開寶敕版大藏經 in Song宋 dynasty and Kitai契丹 Tripitaka. Huilinyinyi belongs to the vocabulary section in this edition. However Huilinyinyi were omitted from later editions in China because of inconsistence in language environments and complex structure hard to find. In Qing清 dynasty, due to the development of philological studies, Yiqiejingyinyi, which preserves the results of previous research, attracted attention. But the scholars in that period, there was no Huilinyinyi, referred to Xuanying's work. Huilinyinyi was reintroduced into China by Yang Shoujing楊守敬, a scholar in late Qing dynasty.

KCI등재

2《만물진원》의 간행과 17∼18세기 유교 지식인의 반응 ―제10편 창조설을 중심으로

저자 : 최정연 ( Choi¸ Jeongyeon )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 17-43 (27 pages)

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This article compares and examines the responses of Chinese and Joseon Confucian intellectuals to the theory of Creation in Wanwu zhenyuan. Wanwu zhenyuan is an exclamation book written by Aleni, a Jesuit in China, that proves that the 'true origin of all things' is God and introduces the process of Creation. It has exerted considerable influence in China since its publication in Beijing in 1628.
The doctrines of Wanwu zhenyuan caused animosity among local intellectuals. The reasons were many, but one of the main ones was the aggressive and exclusive attitude of the Jesuit missionaries toward the Confucian tradition and cultural authority. In particular, the notion of the Hell that even the ancient kings, the creators of Confucian civilization and bearers of truth, can not ascend to heaven seems to reinforce the resistance of Confucian intellectuals such as Huangzhen and Xudashou.
In the 18th century, Joseon intellectuals who viewed Wanwu zhenyuan showed a different aspect from Chinese intellectuals in that they criticized it academically. After the Jinsan Incident in 1791, while the problem of Seohak became publicly debated at the national level and negative perceptions about it were strengthened, Nam Geukgwan and Hong Jeongha approached it carefully and dealt with it in the context of traditional knowledge. Their attitude can be said to be different from other anti-Seohak intellectuals who exclusively rejected Seohak before and after the Jinsan incident, and it can be said that they were far from the rigid atmosphere of the 19th century intellectual circle that completely denied Seohak and reproduced crude criticism.

KCI등재

3인공지능 시대 중국어 음성학·음운론·음성인식의 언어관과 연구방법론

저자 : 한서영 ( Han¸ Seoyoung )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 45-67 (23 pages)

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The aim of this study is to explore human knowledge of language by comparing the research methodology of Chinese speech recognition, phonetics, and phonology in the era of artificial intelligence. By doing this, this study tries to analyze underlying linguistic views in every methods. We first described an acoustic model and a language model in the speech recognition model. A speech chain of human communication was also described to find common ground with the speech recognition model. Then, using the phonetic weakening variant of modern Chinese function word “ge”, a rule-based generative phonological framework has been adapted based on rationalistic views. The view of the first-generation artificial intelligence was also discussed in this regard. Furthermore, the constraint weights for the phonetic weakening variant of “ge” were obtained based on the Harmonic grammar and the Maximum entropy model. These modeling were in relation to machine learning of second-generation artificial intelligence based on an empirical perspective. To conclude, it was revealed that knowledge of human speech is probabilistic. Furthermore, due to a great deal of big data training, mutual AI is expected to be able to learn about the universal grammar of human language, but it was pointed out that the limits are still clear in terms of functionalism and pragmatics.

KCI등재

4온택트(Ontact) 시대 중국어문학 데이터 시각화와 데이터 플랫폼 구축 전략

저자 : 박정원 ( Park¸ Jeong Weon )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 69-91 (23 pages)

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This paper analyzes the source-specific visualization strategies of Chinese textual data to enhance communication with students and ensure scalability of sharing, and the establishment of data service platforms that can serve and utilize them online.
Specifically, data visualization analyzes strategies by classifying them into Subtitle, Ebook, AI TTS, Interactive Contents, Timeline, and Space, depending on the type of Chinese text source. On service platforms, we classify them into complete platforms such as Google Sites and generative platforms such as Wordpress LMS.
Through data visualization and service platform proposed in this paper, we believe that we can enhance the operational capability of Chinese query types and maximize the efficiency of online education by serving them online.

KCI등재

5이백의 시문에 나타난 불교와 공성신퇴의 상관적 고찰

저자 : 임도현 ( Lim¸ Dohyun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 93-111 (19 pages)

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This paper analyzes the contents of Buddhism in the poems and sentences of Li Bai and examines the aspect of his pursuit of the political achievement.
Li Bai was as interested in Buddhism as Taoism, especially his knowledge of the zen. Through the silent zene, he was able to shake off the thoughts of the world and realize the emptiness of wealth and political achievement. This state was almost identical to that of Buddha. Li Bai, who failed to pursue political achievement, was able to soothe his impoverished mind and body.
At that time, Taoism and Buddhism were shared in a lot of philosophical ideologies, and Buddhism which he believed also had a lot of mixed content with Taoism. For Li Bai, the title of Taoism and Buddhism was not important, but whether it could actually help him pursue his ideals. Li Bai wanted to gain the reputation of a hermit without vulgarity in Buddhism. Based on this, he tried to gain recognition from the public and move to government posts.
Li Bai was associated with various monks. In particular, he liked to associate with monks who had a hermitry reputation. Through this, Li Bai tried to show off his fame as a hermitry. He also sought help from assistants who would lead him to government posts and by playing around the temple.

KCI등재

6李白 詩에서의 虛實 交叉 이미지 연구

저자 : 김예림 ( Kim¸ Ye Rim ) , 김준연 ( Kim¸ Joonyoun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-139 (27 pages)

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This study focused on analyzing Tang Poet Li Bai's poetic image on natural scenery. Through the study we found out his ways of composing the image did not only base on 'real scenery.' He also used 'virtual' component on the 'actual' component to form a image which contains multi layer of reality as well as fantasy in one picture. This crossing image of 'reality' and 'virtuality' allowed the poet to create image different from the other poet of his time. This image was formed firstly through method of 'reflecting.' Through reflective surface Li Bai was able to portray his inner feelings to be in a same frame as the actual outer object. He not only did this on reflective surface, his portrayal of two different component was in a same picture on non-reflective object which we set 'Art Work' as a main example. This phenomenon work of crossing two different component was also done through 'image metaphor (moving image)', which poet used when changing original state of object to something else. This creation of artistic image allowed his poetic image to have 'aesthetic effect' of forming image with persuasive fantastical surroundings. It also effectively intensified the invisible feelings to be expressed within the visible object. Last but not least this method diversified topic from simplicity to the state of complexity.

KCI등재

7洪業(William Hung)이 구축한 杜詩 읽기의 새로운 방법론

저자 : 최석원 ( Choi¸ Seokwon )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 141-159 (19 pages)

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This study considered William Hung's reading of Du-fu's poems, who stood on the boundary between the East and the West, to examine the diversity of interpretation according to changes in time and space. As can be seen from the early evaluation of Du-fu presented by Liang-Qichao, the evaluation of modern Du-fu's poems shows a different aspect from that of the traditional period. William Hung attempted to identify the creative date of Du-fu's work and index the Du-fu's works, reflecting a change in the perception of Du-fu's poetry after modern times, and a new academic trend in the West. It is said that this led to changes in reading Du-fu's poetry, which is different from traditions.

KCI등재

8독립지사 申圭植 漢詩集 《兒目淚》 연구 (Ⅰ) ―작품 繫年과 解說을 중심으로

저자 : 진옥경 ( Jin¸ Ok Kyong )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 161-238 (78 pages)

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Yekwan(睨觀) Shin Gyushik(申圭植) was an outstanding politician who escaped Japanese colonial rule, fled to China, where the Chinese revolution was in full swing. He communicated with Chinese revolutionaries and participated in their revolutionary projects, gaining friendship and cooperation. His collection of Chinese poems, “Ah mok lu(兒目淚)”, contains the history of the tearful independence movement that overcame difficult times while interacting and communicating with Korean and Chinese friends. This article was attempted to recreate the traces of his passion, conflict, and frustration that remained intact in his poetical works of “Ah mok lu(兒目淚)”, and was discussed in three specific steps.
First of all, through the works of “Ah mok lu” and other materials, a set of criteria was prepared to specify the timing of each work's production. In accordance with this criterion, we have identified the background and timing of production of works that were not covered in existing studies, correcting and supplementing errors in previous research results. Based on this, the works of the first half of exile were chronologically arranged, and the literary techniques, formal characteristics, origins of the works were analyzed, identifying the reality of the events he experienced in exile and the emotions he felt.

KCI등재

9宋代 通俗詞派의 存在, 特徵과 그 意義

저자 : 朴泓俊 ( Park¸ Hongjun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 239-259 (21 pages)

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In the flow of Tang-Song-Ci, there were many writers with similar characteristics to Liu-yong. They were not concentrated at any one time, but existed throughout each period. In this paper, we will temporarily refer to it as a Popular lyric Group, reflecting its characteristics. They actively adopted the system of Man-ci as a form, actively used spoken language, and adopted the Pu-xu's expression style. The work also pioneered a new area of a Life Lyric, creating a variety of songs that were closely related to the lives of the people of Song Dynasty. Many of the above features were changes that shook the existing framework of Song-ci, and the direction of the change was to accept all the characteristics of folk literature to Song-ci area. The independent recognition of the popular social group is required, along with a review of the two-part method of dividing Song-ci's Faction into Wan-yue and Hao-fang. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the significance of literature history by recognizing that the typical pattern of Chinese literature, in which the activities of Popular lyric Groups are transmitted from private literature to literary literature, is reflected in Song Dynasty.

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10채련곡의 공연방식과 그 문학화 고찰―《악부시집(樂府詩集)》 수록 채련곡(采蓮曲)을 중심으로

저자 : 김수희 ( Kim¸ Soohee )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 108권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 261-281 (21 pages)

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This article holds the view that Cailian songs have been performed since the Han Dynasty, so the method of performances have been reflected in Lotus-picking lyrics. Lotus-picking lyrics has two ways of performing: singing way and musical dance. First of all, in terms of Xianghe song style, Lotus-picking lyrics also makes literary use of hesheng. In chorus, the form of exchanging songs is expressed in the conversation, especially the literati objectively describe the two characters and then convey their conversations. Next, in terms of musical dance performances, the literati choose a first-person female speaker and express her dedication. They also focus on portraying female characters, so lotus belong to the world of female characters. This makes it easy to understand the Southern Dynasties Palace style poetry, a later love poem, and the early Ci poetry.

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KCI등재

1AI 시대 중국 고전문학 연구의 새로운 방법론 탐색

저자 : 김준연 ( Kim Joonyoun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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This study was conducted to suggest how Chinese classical literature researchers should respond the time when the words “fourth industrial revolution” and “AI era” became hot issues around the world. Although it is not yet clear what the meaning of the fourth industrial revolution is, many people are emphasizing the importance of “big data” and “artificial intelligence.” We need to collect 'data' and process 'information' to create 'knowledge' and provide 'better understanding' for our research. For this reason, I think that the researchers in Chinese classical literature also should adapt well to the AI era and find innovative methodologies.
In this paper, I reviewed five detailed areas to explore new methodologies in Chinese classical literature research. Computational criticism is an attempt to understand literary texts using corpus stylistics as the main methodology. Both in terms of macro-views expressed by Franco Moretti as “distant reading” and in vocabulary-level exploration are expected to be effective. Big data seems useful when trying to find meaningful information through data mining techniques. Better results are expected when linked to network analysis. Artificial intelligence can find advantages in co-occurrence analysis using text processing models such as 'Word2Vec'. The application of sentence similarity analysis will help with comparison between different versions and the creation of the authors' genealogy. Machine translation is not yet expected to be stable reading of original texts and annotations. However, it is expected to contribute to lowering the language barrier in the process of obtaining secondary data in modern languages. Information visualization does not seem to have been activated in both GIS-based literature maps and infographics fields. I hope that more active exploration and attempts will be carried out in conjunction with the field of Chinese classical literature education.
However, it is not desirable to overlook the fact that using computers in Chinese classical literature research is ultimately researchers. In other words, discovering research problems and finding solutions is human, not AI. In order to find a research problem, researchers must first read the target texts meticulously. If we have determined that “calculation” is necessary to solve research problems, it is better to find the optimal and best solution with the help of a computer expert than to solve it by ourselves.

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2딥러닝 언어모델과 중국어 문법 ―BERT를 활용한 방향보어의 예측 모형을 중심으로

저자 : 강병규 ( Kang Byeongkwu )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 29-57 (29 pages)

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In this study, we investigated how accurately the BERT model can predict Chinese directional complement. In addition, we analyzed which words the BERT model uses as an important clue in the Chinese directional complement inference process. According to the results of this study, it can be seen that the BERT model shows excellent performance in inferring distributional features and grammatical relationships based on transfer learning. Results of experiments with five Chinese directional complements show that the accuracy rate of predictions is quite high. In addition, as a result of analysis using the masked language model, it was found that the BERT model appropriately uses important clues to determine Chinese directional complement in context.
We believe that this study is not only meaningful in the field of NLP, but also provides insight into Chinese grammar research or language education. If this methodology is properly utilized, it will be possible to establish an application system for Chinese grammar research and education. In Neural network models, sufficient language data learning allows us to predict which language expressions are more natural to use. Proper use of these advantages will give us insight into Chinese grammatical functions. This Chinese grammar prediction system will also help Chinese learners improve their skills by showing them what expressions are grammatically correct.

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3중국어 음성합성: 진단과 과제

저자 : 이옥주 ( Lee Ok Joo )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 59-82 (24 pages)

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Recent years have witnessed the remarkable improvement of speech synthesis technology, which is a fundamental component of numerous AI programs. Chinese text-to-speech technology, which has been also rapidly improved, is used in a variety of programs for language teaching and learning as well as automatic translation. This paper examines major problems with Chinese synthesized speech in several widely-used programs, and discusses the prosodic modeling and the types of speech database that can be used to enhance the naturalness of synthesized speech sounds. It further notes that an increasing body of interdisciplinary research between phonetics and engineering may help to develop new analytic methods in the field of Chinese phonology and phonetics.

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4중국의 교육 현대화와 인공지능

저자 : 박지현 ( Park Jihyun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 83-110 (28 pages)

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In 2010, the Chinese government announced the “National Plan for Medium and Long Term Education Reform and Development” (国家中长期教育改革和发展规劃纲要). In 2019, it launched “China's Education Modernization 2035” (中国教育现代化2035) and accelerated its promotion of 'education modernization' as a national strategy to build a great modern socialist country by 2050. This paper analyzes the impact of artificial intelligence issues which have arisen since 2017 on the development and strategizing of education modernization, taking the view that education informatization is the main driving force behind modernization.

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5“무도즉은(無道則隱)”의 '은(隱)' 해석

저자 : 정진걸 ( Jeong Jin Geol )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 111-130 (20 pages)

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The paper tries to understand the behavior of the Tang recluse. Many people believe that the seclusion of a hermit is a matter for personal peace, And They feel that recluse is living out of society. In this way, the hermit of the Tang Dynasty criticized their behavior. In fact, the HermInIans studied Confucius. So Confucius's view of seclusion is also learning. Their behavior is understandable only when they understand Confucius' view. Confucius viewed the social responsibility of intellectuals very important. Although he was trying to escape during the chaos of national chaos, he served himself as an official in the midst of chaos. It contained critical spirit in the privacy of solitude. Because of this reason, Confucius respected Bai yi, Shu zhai because of this reason. When Confucius lived in seclusion, he refused to keep pace with society. After returning to Lu, he went back to work for the students. Those who are willing to serve the emperor, who are willing to serve, maintain the spirit of criticism, are all imbued with the Confucian spirit.

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64언시 〈정운(停雲)〉의 시의(詩意) 전개 및 시체(詩體) 고찰 ―도연명과 소식을 중심으로

저자 : 朴素鉉 ( Park So-hyun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 131-156 (26 pages)

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Four-word poems were based on a verse form that already achieved an independent style of four-word poem as well as inherited the verse form of the Book of Odes (詩經). In particular, despite its formality that makes it difficult to reveal literary achievements compared with five-word poems with fewer writers composing poems, four-word poems written by Tao Yuanming made outstanding achievements. First of all, four-word poems of Tao Yuanming, which were originated from and inherited the verse form of the Book of Odes, not only were consistent with the teaching of the Book saying 'rise in the emotion but stop in courtesy (發乎情, 止乎禮義)' but also featured gentle and soft style and had strong compassion (溫柔敦厚), containing the sincere will and preference of the writer. At the same time, the distinct characteristics and literary achievements that he accomplished through his four-word poems, which were different from those of other writers, were free from the poems of the Book of Odes although they were based on them and contained the unique 'naturalness' and 'sincerity' of Tao Yuanming. In other words, his four-word poems written on the basis of his natural talent rather than by learning as if peaceful energy of the heaven and the earth gathers (冲和之氣), seemed natural without decorating and neat and elegant, and had a quality of living free from worldly cares. In addition, these qualities reflected in his daily life as well as were embodied in his works, indicating his life being consistent with his works. On the other hand, Su Shi who composed serial poetry of persons for the first time, opening the literary spirit of drinking poems, wrote the echo poems (和韻) of Jeongun (停雲) of Tao Yuanming but achieved a style different from those of him. It resulted from his disposition as well as his motives for creation. Unlike Tao Yuanming who voluntarily decided his position, Su Shi was not able to achieve natural will and preference as he tried to learn those of Tao Yuanming when he lost his position after entering government service. Furthermore, Su Shi's Jeongun written in the Song Dynasty, which was much later than Eastern Jin Dynasty when Tao Yuanming lived, were quite different from the verse style of original four-word poems in terms of formality.

KCI등재

7한맹시파(韓孟詩派) 연구시(聯句詩)의 특징

저자 : 김해민 ( Kim Hae Min )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 157-177 (21 pages)

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The Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) that began with the Han Dynasty Bai Liang Ti was created in earnest at the Zhong Tang, and among them, the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) of the Han Meng School of poetry(韓孟詩派) are considered the highest peak of Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem). Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) in which several people create one piece of work, not only has an entertaining function, but also competes for talents among participants, therefore creating a strong sense of competition for each other. The Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) of the Han Meng School of poetry(韓孟詩派) used contents that were not covered in the previous Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) while having the basic characteristics of the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem), and various changes were made in the formal aspect of the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem). This study examines the characteristics of the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) created by the Han Meng School of poetry(韓孟詩派), comparison with the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) created by Bai Ju Yi and Liu Yu Xi, who were active in the same period. I will examine the characteristics of the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) of the Han Meng School of poetry(韓孟詩派), and analyze the means of the Lian Ju Shi(聯句詩 or Joint Sentences Poem) used by the Han Meng School of poetry(韓孟詩派) through these features.

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8조선 사신의 대명(對明) 해로사행노선(海路使行路線) 중 산동(山東) 래주부(萊州府) 창읍현성(昌邑縣城) - 유현성(濰縣城) 노정에 대한 인문지리적 고찰

저자 : 王珂 ( Wang Ke ) , 한종진 ( Han Jongjin ) , 당윤희 ( Dang Yunhui )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 179-212 (34 pages)

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This study, from the diachronic perspective, based on the field surveys and some interviews, verifies the present geographic names of the places which were passed by the Joseon(朝鮮) envoys, especially around the castle of Changyi County(昌邑縣城) to the castle of Wei County(濰縣城) of Laizhou(萊州府) in Ming(明) Dynasty. It will help to confirm and reconstruct the shipping routes of the Joseon(朝鮮) envoys in Laizhou(萊州府) during the alternation of Ming(明) and Qing(靑) Dynasties.
According to the analysis and field surveys, the names of the places passed by the Joseon envoys from the castle of Changyi County(昌邑縣城) to the castle of Wei County(濰縣城) in Laizhou(萊州府) are reconstructed as follows: ① Xinying Station(新營堡) - ② Beibang Station(北逄 鋪) - ③ Wanglu Station(王祿店/王奴店/王耨鋪) - ④ “Bohai jinhou” pole(“渤海襟喉”欛門/王白鋪) - ⑤ Forty distance Station(四十里舖/牛埠鋪) - ⑥ Wang,Yanfang Village(“營丘舊封”欛門/王彥方故里 /寒亭/汉亭店/寒亭古驛亭/寒亭古驛) - ⑦ Hanzhu River(“古亭寒水”欛門/寒浞河/浞河)- ⑧ An, Pingzhong Village(平仲古里/晏平仲故里/濰縣二十里舖/朱毛鋪) - ⑨ Ten distance Station(十里舖/孔文擧舊治/“文舉甘棠”欛門/趙疃鋪) -⑩ East Dan River Bridge(東丹河橋/虞河橋/漁河橋/濰河橋) -⑪ East Dan River(東丹河/虞河/濰河/囊沙上流處/淮水/東渡河)- ⑫ Bailang Bridge(“北通渤海 南遡穆陵” 欛門/通濟橋/白浪橋) -⑬ Bailang River(白浪河/白狼河/古白浪河) - ⑭ the castle of Wei County(濰縣城)

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9예술적 역사 서술: 《석궤서(石匱書)》 연구(硏究)

저자 : 이은진 ( Lee Eun Jin )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 213-234 (22 pages)

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The tradition of describing historical facts as 'artistic' way rather than 'descriptive' way has slowly disappeared, and there are only analytical and descriptive way to describe history now. In addition, some argued that when a historian describes history, history should not contain its own opinions or opinions at all, and history should be colorless. Short, compressed, and dry description is easy to deliver historical information, but not enough to read the life and meaning of the times. The goal of the study is to explore the possibility of historical writing that not only describe the historical facts and truths that the historian wants to deliver, but also achieve touching and persuasion through artistic composition and expression. From the perspective of a literary researcher, this study analyze the 《SHI KUI SHU (石匱書)》, extract several literary abilities of historians from his history.
First, ZhangDai admired SimaQian's writing style so much, he wanted to write a history that succeed to 《SHI JI(史記)》. Five compositions of history-presented in a series of biographies(紀傳體) were actively utilized. Above all, it maintained the same composition as 《SHI JI(史記)》 by adding “Noble family biographies(世家)” that had been omitted from many history since 《SHI JI (史記)》. Second, This study paid attention to the artistry of the “Lunzan(論贊)” section recorded in the form of “石匱書曰” “總論” “附論”. Each “Lunzan” section reveals the historical perspective and evaluation criteria of ZhangDai for events and characters. Because he was a literary man with excellent literary skills, each sentence of “Lunzan(論贊)” touched a person, the reader was intimidated by his stern judgment, and felt persuaded by his one word. He used a firm tone that revealed his confident spirit as a historian. Third, 《SHI KUI SHU (石匱書)》 achieved a combination of history and literature by utilizing various metaphors and exotic expressions. It compares human bodies and diseases to political situations, and uses expressions such as the ecology of animals and insects. This made the reader more aware of events and characters more vividly and gave them a rich imagination. 《SHI KUI SHU (石匱書)》 is a meaningful history that reminds us of the possibility of artistic writing in history.

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10망국(亡國)과 사물 ―팔대산인(八大山人) 화조화(花鳥畵) 작품 개설

저자 : 이주현 ( Lee Juhyun )

발행기관 : 한국중국어문학회 간행물 : 중국문학 106권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 235-261 (27 pages)

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In Bada Shanren's artworks, it is hard to find a harmonious and united world that has traditionally been built in Chinese literati painting. The flowers, trees, fish, and birds in his paintings look shabby and lonely and have negative feelings such as anger and sadness. These objects reflect his despair as a descendant of the Ming in the Ming and Qing transition period. In his poems, the images symbolizing the Ming appear repeatedly, such as bright and round moon, yellow and red colour. At the same time, there are some situations that one cannot achieve something even though one tries to.
Moreover, the fish that symbolize the loyalists of the Ming are watching the world outside the water with their upward eyes. The gaze with anger was toward the turncoats who became the servants of the Qing Dynasty. The view also shows the paradox of a fish hidden or trapped in the water, contrary to the desire to be majestic in the outside world. In the world of Bada, birds that are generally free to move with their wings are not much different from fish in the water. The solitary bird feels lonely and misses its mate, and the two birds are at odds. The broken love, separation, and sadness of losing one's mate in his poems depicting birds were the images of the people who lost their own country. Ultimately, their weak and shabby appearances were the self-images of Bada Shanren who has no hope to regain his mother country anymore.

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