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한국생산성학회> 생산성논집(구 생산성연구)> 인구고령화가 의료비 지출에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구

KCI등재

인구고령화가 의료비 지출에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구

Impacts of Population Aging on Medical Consumption Expenditure

정욱영 ( Ugyeong Jeong ) , 김병준 ( Byoung Joon Kim )
  • : 한국생산성학회
  • : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 03월
  • : 161-183(23pages)
생산성논집(구 생산성연구)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 선행 연구
Ⅲ. 인구고령화와 의료소비행태의 변화
Ⅳ. 실증분석 모형
Ⅴ. 실증분석 결과
Ⅵ. 결 론
<참고문헌>

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This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the medical consumption expenditure based on auto-regressive distributed lag(ADL) model. By estimating medical consumption expenditure function, elasticities of age-specific income, price, and interest rate were derived and the impacts of population aging on medical consumption expenditure were investigated using quarterly data from 1990 to 2016. Essential estimation statistics of our model showed well as 0.85 ∼ 0.98 in R2, no serial correlation, and satisfying 1% significance level in t-values. As main empirical results, first, Income elasticities were shown to be the biggest value 0.60 in the lower thirties and the smallest one of 0.29 in the upper sixties. These results means accelerating population aging will functions as a declining factor in medical industry. Second, price elasticities were found to be -1.04 in the household average and the most responsive value of -2.06 in the forties and the least responsive one of -0.52 in the upper sixties. As households older, their medical expenditure responded less to the relative price change of medical commodities which means these are near to necessities to them. If price of medical commodities will change in the declining direction, this will be a positive factor in growing of medical industry. Regardless of age groups, interest rate showed negative relation to the medical consumption expenditure. Interest rate elasticities were estimated to be -0.177 in the household average, the most responsive value -2.60 in the upper sixties, and the least responsive one -0.11 in the lower thirties. Due to recent Corona-19 disaster and low interest rat policy of U.S.A., on-going very low level of interest rate will contribute to growing demand in medical industry.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 경영학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1225-3553
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1987-2021
  • : 1217


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KCI등재

1산연협력에서의 협력적 행동 및 만족에 미치는 영향요인에 관한 연구

저자 : 황경연 ( Kyung-yun Hwang ) , 성을현 ( Eul-hyun Sung )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 3-41 (39 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors that affect satisfaction in Industry-Public Research Institute (IPR) cooperation. This study selects IPR's dependence, IPR's trust, IPR's cooperation commitment and IPR's cooperative behavior as factors influencing IPR's cooperation satisfaction based on resource dependence theory, interpersonal relationship theory and interorganizational relationship theory. The structural relationship between these constructs was established with nine hypotheses. A total of 277 data for hypothesis testing were collected from Daedeok Innopolis through a survey. The survey subjects were the managers of firms, which are technology receivers, and university professors and researchers at public research institutes, which are a group of technology providers. In the empirical analysis results, it was found that IPR's dependence has a positive effect on IPR's trust, IPR's cooperation commitment and IPR's cooperative behavior. And IPR's trust has a positive effect on IPR's cooperation commitment, IPR's cooperative behavior and IPR's cooperation satisfaction. In addition, IPR's cooperation commitment has a positive effect on IPR's cooperative behavior and IPR's cooperation satisfaction, and IPR's cooperative behavior has a positive effect on IPR's cooperation satisfaction. Additionally, in the technology receiver group, the effect of IPR's cooperation commitment on IPR's cooperation satisfaction was not significant, but all other structural relationships were found to be significant. On the other hand, in the technology providers group, IPR's trust was found to have a significant effect on IPR's cooperation commitment, IPR's cooperative behavior and IPR's cooperation satisfaction, and the rest of the structural relationships were found to be nonsignificant. As a result, the factors affecting the IPR's cooperation satisfaction of the businessmen group and the researcher group were found to be different.

KCI등재

2참여적 리더십이 직무성과에 미치는 영향 : 조직동일시와 직무열의의 순차적 직렬다중매개효과

저자 : 박봉제 ( Bong-je Park ) , 신제구 ( Je-goo Shin )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 43-84 (42 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to validate the mechanism in which participative leadership affects job performance in order to obtain implications for the mechanism driving job performance, a change in the paradigm for performance management, and the newly required leadership role in a business environment with increasing uncetainty. To this end, it was intended to identify the direct effect between participative leadership and job performance, the indirect effect through each of organizational identification and job engagement, and the sequential serial multiple mediating effect through organizational identification and job engagement.
This study attempts to explain the mechanism by which participative leadership influences employee's job performance through the Social Exchange Theory. This study proposed a research model in which a leader exerts participative leadership, leading to changes in the attitudes and thinking of members through psychological motivation for the members, and ultimately affecting job performance. Since each member's inner psychology is different, the same leadership behavior of a leader can generate different mediating effects for each member. Therefore, this study attempts to verify the mediating effect of organizational identification and job engagement to clarify the mechanism by which participative leadership influences employee's job performance through parameters.
The survey was conducted on employees working in various industries and analyzed using PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2013). The reliability and validity of the measurement tools were enhanced through preliminary survey, and the timing of the measurement of dependent variables was separated to overcome the common method bias. In addition, position, positive emotions, and negative emotions were applied as control variables.
As a result of the study, direct effect was not significant between participative leadership and job performance. Second, participative leadership reinforces organizational identification and confirmed the indirect effect of improving job performance. Third, it was confirmed that participative leadership reinforces job engagement and improves job performance. Fourth, it was confirmed that the serial multiple mediating effect of participative leadership on job performance through organizational identification and job engagement sequentially was significant. In other words, it was found that participative leadership reinforces organizational identification, which in turn reinforces job engagement and has a positive effect on job performance.
This work contributes to the expansion of existing leadership research by empirically identifying the mechanism between participative leadership and job performance. In the future study, it is possible to expand participative leadership research by expanding the application of various mediating and moderating variables, and it will be possible to contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of participative leadership through comparative studies between each variable.
The theoretical and practical implications for the research results, limitations of the research, and future research tasks were presented.

KCI등재

3부모의 경제력이 자녀의 진학과 임금에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김덕호 ( Kim Dug Ho )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 85-112 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of parent's economic status on their children's education and wages. It starts with a criticism that in recent, the economic status of parents has been handed down to the child generation due to educational opportunities distributed unequally in Korea. For the analysis, the study uses data from the 2016 Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey(GOMS) which consists of a sample of about 25,000 people, 3~4% of college graduates nationwide. Using the data, the study conducts chi-square analysis to examine whether parents' income level and asset size affect their children's college rankings. One-way ANOVA is also conducted to examine whether college ranking and parent's economic status affect their children's wage level.
We found, as a result of the analysis, first that the higher the income level of parents and the larger the asset size, the higher the children's college rankings. This means that there is a strong relationship between the parents' economic status and the children's academic achievement. In particular, it was found that the children of parents who are at the highest level economically go to university at the highest level in many cases. Second, It was found that college rankings have an effect on wages. The wage average of the top college graduates was particularly higher than that of the other groups. This shows how the ranking of universities influences employment in the Korean labor market. Third, parents' economic status also affected their children's wages in the labor market. The hierarchical regression analysis conducted additionally in the study also empirically proved the hypothesis, which means that economic inheritance is taking place in the high-income class of our society.
The study presents the following implications in education and labor market policies in terms of productivity. First of all, efforts are needed to ensure that educational opportunities are equally distributed at the policy level. This is because individuals demonstrate their abilities through education, and education can contribute to productivity improvement and social cohesion when making the individual's ability to be fully exercised. Next, in the areas where educational opportunities are distributed unequally, it is necessary to supplement them with labor market policies. As the technology-intensive digital economy progresses in recent years, a higher level of education is required than in the past, and there is a growing possibility that the gap in the labor market will widen depending on the financial support of parents. Therefore, the study proposes to increase dramatically the participation of low-income people in high-quality and expensive education and training courses.

KCI등재

4서번트 리더십이 비윤리적 친조직 행동에 미치는 영향 : 일터영성의 매개효과

저자 : 강효진 ( Hyo-jin Kang ) , 김종인 ( Jong-in Kim )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-161 (49 pages)

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TServant leadership emphasizes the importance of leadership in an increasingly competitive global environment. Servant leadership is a field of leadership that is drawing attention in that the organization contributes to organizational performance by serving and serving employees.
This study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationship between workplace spirituality and unethical pro-organizational behavior of the leader, and verifying the intermediary effect of workplace spirituality in the relationship between Servant leadership and unethical pro-organizational behavior.
The survey was conducted on 600 employees in Korea and the results of 475 of them were analyzed. As a measurement tool, Servant leadership, workplace spirituality, and unethical pro-organizational behavior were used to analyze and utilize the statistical package SPSS 23.0. and AMOS 21.
First, it was found that servant leadership had a positive significant effect on workplace spirituality. In other words, it was verified that servant leadership has a direct positive relationship to all of the sub-elements of workplace spirituality, namely, inner life, meaningful work, and sense of community. Second, it was found that servant leadership had a positive significant effect on unethical pro-organizational behavior. This was confirmed to increase the unethical pro-organizational behavior of employees through the leader's servant leadership. Third, in the relationship between workplace spirituality and unethical pro-organizational behavior, workplace spirituality showed significant results. In other words, it was confirmed that the higher the sense of the follower's inner life and meaningful work, and the sense of community with colleagues and the local community, enhances the follower's unethical pro-organizational behavior. Lastly, it was confirmed that among the three sub-dimensions of workplace spirituality, the inner life and meaningful work except for the sense of community among the three sub-dimensions of the workplace spirituality were found to have a mediating effect.
In this work, the following importance can be found:
First, we explained the process by which the boss's leadership of Servant influences organizational effectiveness. This study identifies the effectiveness of the Servant Leadership presented in the previous prior study by showing that organizational members bring a higher level of organizational effectiveness when influenced by Servant Leadership. Next, the servant leader, who grows and develops followers' capabilities through understanding and adapting to environmental change, explained the theoretical process of contributing to the achievement of organizational goals by presenting a vision to employees and increasing trust with them.
Secondly, we present theoretical implications for unethical pro-organizational behavior. The study focused on the process of why organizational members become immersed in unethical pro-organizational behavior, along with ethical results from previous studies, confirming that positive social exchange relationships and organizational identification motivate organizational members to act unethical to benefit the organization.
We intends to present practical implications to corporate CEOs and human resource managers as follows:
First of all, there is a positive relationship between servant leadership and workplace spirituality, so it is necessary to increase servant leadership to increase workplace spirituality that can increase the intrinsic motivation and work immersion of organizational members.
Second, workplace spirituality can have positive effects such as loyalty or attachment to the organization through internal motivation, so the organization needs to train employees to understand the positive aspects of workplace spirituality.
Thirdly, it is a management of unethical pro-organizational behavior. Unethical pro-organizational behavior is unethical in terms of 'pro-organizational', which in turn can greatly harm the organization's reputation and sustainability, which is dangerous. Therefore, it is important to understand what motivates employees to participate in unethical pro-organizational behavior, as well as to reduce and eliminate unethical pro-organizational behavior. To this end, ethical behavior should be encouraged, managers should not only maintain an appropriate balance between financial benefits and ethical standards through evaluation and promotion systems, but also reduce unethical pro-organizational behavior through performance evaluations or links to salaries. It is necessary to raise awareness of this by highlighting issues of unethical pro-organizational behavior toward organizations or employees through ethical training programs.

KCI등재

5QFD와 벤치마킹을 활용한 엔젤 교육 프로그램 설계 연구

저자 : 이형주 ( Hyung Joo Lee ) , 황보윤 ( Yun Hwangbo ) , 은준엽 ( Joonyup Eun )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 163-203 (41 pages)

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In order to vitalize angel investments, the Government of South Korea has recently promoted the general public investments, regional investments and network reinforcement, deregulation, and tax support. There is an urgent need of educational programs to discover potential angels and enhance their investment capabilities to promote the general public investments.
This study attempts to present the design direction of consumer-centered angel educational programs using the quality function deployment(QFD) and benchmarking. The ameliorated programs are expected to discover potential angels and improve their investment capabilities. This study identifies the limitations of the existing job-oriented angel education through a literature review and confirms the necessity of consumer-oriented Kano-QFD-based educational programs. Subsequently, attractive quality factors are derived from Kano-based demand surveys of 19 angels, 25 startup representatives, and 20 education consultants. Customer needs priorities and quality importance are also determined using the QFD. In addition, the angel educational programs of 7 domestic and foreign institutions are benchmarked.
Based on this empirical research, we identify the design direction of angel educational programs as follows. First, the program needs to be customized in depth. Second, the program needs to inspire self-esteem by conferring qualified angel investment certificates upon completion of the required education. Third, the program needs to invigorate the community of trainees and graduates. Fourth, the program needs to be designed to establish a refresher education system for angels. Fifth, the program needs to be a blended delivery of face-to-face and non-face-to-face education centering on online non-face-to-face education. Sixth, according to the target audience, the program should incorporate quality importance and customer needs priorities.
This research proposes the direction to improve angel educational programs. It is expected to study the design of segmented educational programs that consider angel investment experience, gender, and region for future research.

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KCI등재

1기업수준 직원이직률의 사회적 역동성 : 과거 이직률, 조직몰입 및 기업성과의 관계

저자 : 권기욱 ( Kiwook Kwon ) , 옥지호 ( Chiho Ok )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 3-30 (28 pages)

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This study investigates the process of relationship among past employee voluntary turnover rates, future employee voluntary turnover rates, and firm performance. In addition, we considered the remaining employees' organizational commitment as contextual factors (boundary condition) between past (t-1) and present (t) employee voluntary turnover rates. Although the roles and relationships of diverse factors regarding employee turnover at organizational level have been identified in the literature, few attempts have been made to address the relationship of turnover at two different points (e.g. past and present) in time. By noting on the social dynamics and turnover contagion model, we attempted to fill the research gap and shed light on the understanding of the socially dynamic nature of employee turnover. For empirical analysis, we utilized the Human Capital Enterprise Panel Survey and chose 1,239 observations and 469 companies from 2007 to 2017. By doing so, we conducted panel analysis using random-effects modeling based on year-lagged design. The results show that, first, there is a positive causal relationship between past turnover rate (t-1) and present turnover rate (t), supporting the contagion effect. Second, the present turnover rate (t) mediates the relationship between past turnover rate (t-1) and future firm performance (t+1). Third, organization-level organizational commitment, derived by summing up responses from multiple employees, moderates the relationship between past turnover rate (t-1) and present turnover rate (t) such that the positive relationship (contagion effect) is stronger when organizational commitment is low rather than high. Based on the results, we provided theoretical and practical implications which could help organizations enhance their productivity and effectiveness.

KCI등재

2Effects of Product Certification on Importer Trade across Borders : The Case Study of the Philippines

저자 : Michelle Esteban , Jun Yeup Kim

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 31-60 (30 pages)

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Product certification has been important especially in developing countries to protect their consumers by providing quality and safe products and protecting the country from an import surge of products that may cause serious injury to local producers. This research analyzes the effects of product certification to electrical and electronics products and importers of group E (HS codes 84 and 85), using three trading across borders importation variables of the Ease of Doing Business Index of World Bank. About 44,081 data entries of the import commodity clearance (ICC) applications of 497 group E firms applying for ICC in the Philippines have been evaluated and analyzed using mixed approach. The study showed that time and cost during importation of electrical and electronics products have an effect on importations and number of firms or importers. However, the number of documents for import compliance does not show a significant correlation to the importations nor firms. This shows that a flexible technical regulation for importers could be beneficial because of the varied effects to products being imported and the importers due to the dynamic characteristics of different industries, complexity of the certification system.

KCI등재

3The Impact of Product Quality and Service Quality in Product-Service System on Economic Value : Focusing on Mediating Effect of Experience Value for Electronic Shelf Labels

저자 : Jae-yong Yang , Geun-wan Park , Sang-ryul Lee , Seung-june Hwang

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 61-99 (39 pages)

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In recent years, Electronic Shelf Labels (ESL) is attracting attention as an innovative price information system for offline retail stores. Paper price labels, which have been used in retail stores for a long time, are an inefficient system in delivering price and product promotion information to shoppers. The paper price label system, which is produced solely by the hand of the employees, does not provide a satisfactory experience to shoppers by frequently creating situations where inaccurate prices are displayed or prices are not announced in a timely manner. Moreover, as a large part of the work time is spent on replacing the paper price label, the productivity of the employees is lowered and the job satisfaction level is also lowered.
This study aims to present indicators and models for measuring the performance of ESL system, which has recently begun to be introduced as an infrastructure for operation innovation of price information in offline retail stores. To this end, Product Quality and Service Quality factors based on ESL attributes were derived through previous studies and used as independent variables, and items related to Economic Value, one of the PSS value factors, were used as dependent variables as performance indicators. And, as mediators, the elements of Experience Value were defined from the perspective of ESL users. As a research method, a structural equation model was used to analyze the data collected from the employees of medium-sized stores of the large-scale brands that introduced ESL in Korea.
As a result of the study, it was confirmed that Experience Value was completely mediated in the relationship between Product Quality and Economic Value. On the other hand, Experience Value was partially mediated in the relationship between Service Quality and Economic Value. According to the results of these, it was found that the product quality attributes of ESL have low influences on directly solving the problems of the existing price information operation, but it can affect performance through the user's individual use experience. In contrast, Service Quality has the direct effects on performance by including the operating factors of ESL.
This study developed the measurement indicators through previous researches on 'Product Quality', 'Service Quality', 'PSS', and 'Experience Value' in grasping the introduction performance of ESL. Survey data was collected from retailers who introduced ESL in Korea. This study suggests the significant academic implications in that the results of research reflecting the PSS attributes of ESL were derived through the analysis of the collected data. In addition, the results present as the practical implications that ESL suppliers and retailers must make strategies and efforts to improve the experience value and service quality of products in order to enhance the performance of ESL introduction.
In particular, in the context of intensifying competition with online/mobile shopping malls today, this study has implications in that it deals with the introduction results of ESL, an automated system for delivering price information, from the viewpoint of enhancing the productivity of offline retail stores.
This study has significance as an early empirical study on ESL. It is expected that there will be follow-up studies targeting stores in various sizes, types, and regions in the future.

KCI등재

4완벽주의가 혁신행동에 미치는 효과 : 직무열의의 매개효과를 중심으로

저자 : 김현담 ( Hyeon Dam Kim ) , 김성용 ( Seong-yong Kim ) , 안성익 ( Seong-ik Ahn )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 101-135 (35 pages)

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Recent high level of competition among firms coerces firms to pursue innovations and perfect outcomes, which seems contradictive to each other, at same time for survival and continuous growth. So, there is enough reason why we investigate the relationship between them. However, because the two are organizational-level concepts and difficult to operationalize for measurement, we investigated the relationship at individual level. Namely, we investigated the effects of perfectionism on innovative behavior.
Perfectionism as individual trait is expected to have negative effects on innovation in that the person with high perfectionism have a tendency of avoiding new challenge to prevent failure. At the same time, perfectionism is also expected to have positive effects in that person with high perfectionism will try new challenge to develop the quality of outcomes. Through our intensive literature review on perfectionism, we defined perfectionism as multi-dimensional construct that consist of two dimensions, that is, personal standards perfectionism and evaluative concerns perfectionism. Furthermore, we also expected that job engagement will mediate the relationship.
After collecting data with questionnaires, we analyzed the relationship with structural equation model. The results supported our expectation on the whole. First, job engagement show statistically significant positive effect on innovation behavior. Second, personal standards perfectionism showed statistically significant positive direct effect and indirect effect on innovative behavior. Third, evaluative concerns perfectionism showed statistically significant negative indirect effect. On these results, we discussed theoretical and practical implications.

KCI등재

5Spherical K-means 군집화 방법론을 활용한 패션 속성 분석 연구

저자 : 방소연 ( Soyoun Bang ) , 이미영 ( Miyoung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 137-159 (23 pages)

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In 4th Industrial Revolution, the types of data collected are diverse and the scale is growing large. With the popularization of smart devices and the spread of social network services(SNS), lots of information such as items purchased by people, video contents viewed, shopping list, location that we visited and keywords that we searched have been collecting and overflowing countless times. In the industry, all this information is converted to data. Also, various types of information from customers are collected and many companies build and research numerous business models. These days, researches on personalized recommendation services are also being actively conducted, and the form of data collected accordingly is also very extensive. The purpose of this study is to analyze and utilize items of categorical variables to create similar clusters, and to apply association analysis within each cluster to provide meaningful information to people.
In this study, after dividing the attribute data sets of Vogue fashion show image without class into top, bottom and whole, and was applied for Spherical K-means clustering and association rules. As a result of the simulation, it was confirmed that a relatively large number of various combinations appeared on the whole, the combination of colors and other properties mainly appeared in the bottom, and we found that the association density was lower than that of the whole and top. In the future, it is necessary to consider additional analysis and in-depth interpretation of what the results of this study mean in the industry and how the information can be used.

KCI등재

6인구고령화가 의료비 지출에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구

저자 : 정욱영 ( Ugyeong Jeong ) , 김병준 ( Byoung Joon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 35권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 161-183 (23 pages)

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This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the medical consumption expenditure based on auto-regressive distributed lag(ADL) model. By estimating medical consumption expenditure function, elasticities of age-specific income, price, and interest rate were derived and the impacts of population aging on medical consumption expenditure were investigated using quarterly data from 1990 to 2016. Essential estimation statistics of our model showed well as 0.85 ∼ 0.98 in R2, no serial correlation, and satisfying 1% significance level in t-values. As main empirical results, first, Income elasticities were shown to be the biggest value 0.60 in the lower thirties and the smallest one of 0.29 in the upper sixties. These results means accelerating population aging will functions as a declining factor in medical industry. Second, price elasticities were found to be -1.04 in the household average and the most responsive value of -2.06 in the forties and the least responsive one of -0.52 in the upper sixties. As households older, their medical expenditure responded less to the relative price change of medical commodities which means these are near to necessities to them. If price of medical commodities will change in the declining direction, this will be a positive factor in growing of medical industry. Regardless of age groups, interest rate showed negative relation to the medical consumption expenditure. Interest rate elasticities were estimated to be -0.177 in the household average, the most responsive value -2.60 in the upper sixties, and the least responsive one -0.11 in the lower thirties. Due to recent Corona-19 disaster and low interest rat policy of U.S.A., on-going very low level of interest rate will contribute to growing demand in medical industry.

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